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Crown 8vo, 144 pages, One Shilling each. 

%^rTh€se Handybooks have been written to supply information for Workmkn, 
Studknts an^ Amateurs in the several Handicrafts, on the actual Practick of the 
Workshop, and are intended to convey in plain language Technical Knowledgk of 
the several Crafts* In describing the processes employed, and the manipulation of 
material, workshop terms ate used ; workshop practice is fully explained; and the 
text is freely illustrated with drawings of modefn tools, appliances and processes. 
The information given will thus be found useful, not only by the young beginner, but 
by the veteran whose range of experience has been narrowed under a systern of divided 
labour; while the amateur will find himself introduced to the very atmosphere and 
sun oundings of the workshop. 

*^ The following Volunxen are now ready : 

THE METAL TURNER'S HANDYBOOK : A Practical Manual for 

Workers at the Foot- Lathe. With over 100 Illustrations. 

" The book will be of service alike to the amateur and the artisan turner. It displays thorough 
knowled^re of the subject"— ■Sc«/!f»fa». 

THE WOOD TURNER'S HANDYBOOK : A Practical Manual for 

Workers at the Lathe. With overxoo Illustrations. 

"We reconiiuned tlie book to young turners and amateurs. A nmltitude of workmen have 
hitherto soujiht in train for a manual of this special industry. "—Afichanica/ H^orld. 


Cleaning, Repairing and Adjusting. With upwards of 100 Illustrations. 

"We strongly advise all youn;; persons connected with the watch trade to acquire and study this 
inexpensive \iox)e..''—CJerkenweU ChronicU. 

on the Construction of Patterns for Founders. With upwards of 100 Illustrations. 

" Mr. Hasluck's book goes into the details of construction of the simplest as well as the most coin- 

S>licated patterns likely to be met with in practice. It is a most valuable, if not indispensable, mauual 
or the pattern n\aku."—KnotuUdee. 

Manual on Mechanical Manipulation, embracing information on various Handi- 
craft Processes. With useful Notes and Miscellaneous Memoranda. Com- 
prising about 200 Subjects. 

"A very clever and useful book, which should be found in every workshop ; and it should certainly 
find a place in all technical schools."— So/Mrtfay Review, 

on the Construction of Model Steam Engines. With upwards of 100 Illustrations. 
** Mr. Hasluck has produced a very good little hook^**— Builder. 

Cleaning, Repairing and Adjusting. With upwards of 100 Illustrations. 
" It is of inestimable service to those commencing the Xx^Ac."— Coventry Standard. 

on the Tools, Materials, Appliances and Processes employed in Cabinet Work. 
With upward of 100 Illustrations. 

**Mr. Hasluck's thoroughgoing little Handybook is amongst the most practical guides we liavt 
srcn for beginners in cabinei-work."— So/Mr-t/a^ Jievieto. 

TION. Embracing Information on the Tools, Materials and Processes employed 
in Woodworking. With 104 Illustrations. 

London : CROSBY LOCKWOOD & SON, 7, Stationers' HaJl Court. 






^ ^va(tical Manual 














[AU Bights ReMwedJ] 









Model Engineering is a branch of the mechanical arts that 
has received but a scanty share of literary treatment. The 
subject seems, however, to be particularly suited for such dis- 
cussion, it being so closely associated with experimental work* 
The reader of this Handybook is assumed to have some 

• practical experience in handling tools, and some knowledge of 

N. mechanical manipulation, such as can be gleaned from other 

*sj volumes in this series ; turning, filing, fitting, soldering, etc., 

^ having been already treated upon. 

This Handybook contains a large number of carefully- 

i engraved Illustrations, accurately reduced from working draw- 
ings of model engines that have been made under my own 
supervision. The value of these accurate illustrations will be 
appreciated by those who are interested in models of the kind 
they represent. I may remind readers that their value is not 
** to be estimated by any number of pages of letterpress. A 

**? single drawing often shows at a glance what could not be so 

^ clearly explained in volumes of type. 

Large extracts from some articles written originally by me 
for the Boy's Own Paper are incorporated in this Handybook. 
I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. G. A. Hutchison, t]\e 
Editor of that paper, for permission to reproduce them here. 



Decembtr, i88« 


Cll VP. 

I. Principles of the Steam Engine ... 

II. MODwi. Steam Engines ... 

Eleven Illustrations. 

III. Self-acting Toy Engine 

Eight Illustrations, 

IV. Horizontal Engines 

Twenty-two Illustrations. 

• • • • • 

t •  • • 

V. Oscillating Engines 

Six Illustrations. 

• • •«• • « • 

VI. Launch Engine 

Twenty- two Illustrations. 

VII. Tank Engine 

• • • • « 

Eight Illustrations. 

••• ••• •■• 

VIII. Tank Engine Details ... 

i:eventeen Illustrations. 

• • • 

IX. Governors and Pumps. ... 

Sixteen Illustrations. 

X. Erecting a Model ., 

Three Illustrations, 

XI. Model Boilers. 

• • • • • 

I • •  • • •  

Seven I/Zi/sff-ations, 
XII. Miscellaneous Items 

• •• •• • 

• • • • • • • %9m 

• • • • • • 



... 10- 23 

... 24—31 
... 32-46 

••• i7-54 
... 55-69 

70 — 8* 
... S2--97 

... 98 — 1 1 2 

...113— 120 

.. 12; — 129 


INDsX ••• ••• 

 •« ••• ••• ••# ••• «•• ••• 

...I4X -IA4 


flG. . PAGE 

I Most Inexpensive Form of Engine lo 
s Toy Engine with Oscillating Cy- 
linder II 

3 Portable Engine for Agricultural 

Work 12 

4 Vertical Launch Engine .. •• i3 

5 Double Cylinder Vertical Engine 13 

6 Horizontal Engine 15 

7 Semi-Portable Oscillating Engine 16 

8 Semi-Portable Slide Valve Engine j6 

9 Horizontal Engine with Boiler . . 18 

10 Beam Engine with Vertical Boiler 19 

11 Semi- Portable Engine and Boiler 20 

12 Side of Toy Oscillating Engine . . 24 

13 Front of Toy .Oscillatinjg Engine 24 

14 Cylinder & Pillar Showing Steam 

Ports.. •. 25 

15 Piston 28 

16 Weighted Lever Saifety Valve .. 29 

17 Spring Safety Valve .. '.. 29 

18 Spring Lever Safety Valve .. 29 

19 Section of Safety Valve .. .. 30 

20 SkeletonPlan ofHorizontalEngine 33 

21 Side of Horizontal Engine ,, 33 

22 CylinderEnd ofHorizontalEngine 33 
S3 Crank End of Horizontal Engine 33 

24 Front View of Horizontal Engine 34 

25 Back View of Horizontal Engine 35 

26 Plan of Horizontal Engine . . 36 
«7 Elevationof Horizontal Engine.. 36 

28 Section of Cylinder 37 

29 Slide Valve .. 38 

30 Crank Shaft 39 

31 Crank Bearing 39 

32 Crank Arm 39 

53 Guide Block 40 

54 Crank Pin and Connecting Rod.. 40 

35 Eccentric and Strap ..41 

36 Elevation of Horizontal Engine. . 42 

37 Plan of Horizontal Engine . . 42 

38 Section of Cylinder., ,. ..43 

39 Piston Rod 44 

40 Connecting Rod, Side and Top 

views .. ,, s« ,, 44 

41 Valve Rod and Joint .. ..45 

42 Eccentric and Strap .. ..45 

43 Single-acting Oscillating Cylinder 47 

44 Pair of Double-acting Oscillating 

Cylinders 48 

45 Side View of Oscillating Cylinder 

Engine 50 

46 End View of Oscillating Cylinder 

Engine 50 

47 Glands and Stuffing Boxes . . 53 

48 Valve Face of Oscifiating Engine 53 

49 Plan View of Launch Engine . . 55 

50 Front View of Launch Engine .. 56 

51 Side View of Launch Engine ,, 57 

52 Vertical Section of Cylinder . . 59 

53 Horizontal Section of Cylinder 59 

54 Sectional View of Launch Engine 60 

55 Section of Crossbead ..• . . 6z 


56 Connecting Rod 61 

57 Eccentric and Strap . • . . 62 

58 Eccentric Rods 02 

59 Linkand Die: Side & Edge Views 63 
60' Valve Rod and Crossbead . . 6j 

61 Quadrant Plate : Side and Edge 

Views C4 

62 Chmiping' Bolt for Quadrant . . 64 

63 Bolt for Link Motion Connections 64 

64 Pin in Link for Couplings of 

Reversing Lever . . . . C5 

65 Valve and Valve Face . . . . 65 
C6 Union for Steam Chest .. ..65 

67 Brasses for Crank Shaft . . . . 65 

68 Cap for Brasses : Elevation and 

Plan 66 

69 Section of Cylinder Grease Cup 66 

70 Double Cylinder Launch Engine 68 

71 Plan of Tank Engine .. ..73 

72 Elevation of Tank Engine . . 73 

73 Plummer Block 74 

74 Oil Cup Elevation and Section 75 

75 Plain Bent Crank .. .. ;. 78 

76 Crank with Elliptical Throws. . 78 

77 Three-Throw Bent Crank . . 78 

78 End View of Three-Throw Crank 78 

79 Transverse Section of Cylinder 82 

80 Longitudinal Section of Cylinder 83 

81 Section through Slide Valves . . 84 

82 Pin for Crossbead . . . . 88 

83 Crossbead Sg 

84 Sliding Blocks gc 

85 Lever for Slide Valve and Pump 96 

86 Crossheads for Valve Rod, &c. 95 

87 Bracket for Rocking' Lever . . 97 

88 Section, &c., of Governor .. 99 

89 Elevation, &c., of Governor . . 99 

90 Section, &c., of Steam Tap and 

Throttle Valve loi 

91 Elevation, &c.,of Steam Tap and 

Throttle Valve .. .. . loi 

92 Diagonal Force Pump . . 103 

93 Cross Section of Force Pump for 

Launch Engine 104 

94 Vertical Section of Force Pump 104 

95 Horizontal Section of Force Puu)pio4 

96 Joint for Plunger 104 

97 Connecting Rod for Force Pump 105 

98 Back Pressure Valve . . . . 106 

99 Section of Force Pump .. .. 107 
100 Horizontal Section of Force 

Pump for Tank Engine .. 109 

loi Vertical Section of Force Pump 109 

102 Cross Section of Force Pump . . 109 

103 Vertical Section of Force Pump 109 

104 Steam Ways in Cylinder .. 115 

105 Negative Lap in Cylinder .. 116 

106 Exhaust Lap in Cylinder . . ti6 

107 Vertical Boiler 122 

108 Vertical Boiler 122 

X09 Horizontal Boiler 124 

no Fire Bor and Ends of Boiler ,. 125 

Just published, waistcoat-pocket size, price i/6, post free. 

SCREW^ threads: 





Author oi*'Laihe- Work," *' The Meial Turner's Handybook,' «cc. 

Fifth Edition. * 

"Full of useful information, hints and practical criticism. May 
be heartily recommended." — Mechanical World. 

" A useful co:npendittm, in which the subject is exhaustively 
dealt with.** — /ron. 

CROSBY LOCKWOOD & SON, 7, Stationers' Hall Court, 
Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 









HE making of model engines is a mechanical exercise 
which finds great favour amongst amateurs, and indeed 
all young beginners at engineering. The work is seldom pur- 
sued with any very satisfactory result, as really considerable 
skill is necessary to construct working models. The tyro who 
commences his miniature engineering labours finds very little 
published information which is of use to him. 

Model engines, in every stage of manufacture, from the 
rough castings direct from the foundry to the complete, highly- 
finished working model, may now be purchased in nearly 
every town of importance throughout Great Britain. Though 
this trade is of but recent growth, its continual extension 
proves that model engines are objects of interest to a large 
number of the rising generation, and it is felt that information 
as to their manufacture will prove acceptable to very many 

It will be advisable to gain an insight into the principles 
which govern the action of a steam-engine, and to learn 
spme of the technical peculiarities, before proceeding to 


attempt its manufacture. There are numerous textbooks on 
the steam-engine which may be studied with advantage, and 
which explain the theoretical principles. 

The modem engine, which now claims our attention^ is the 
result of numerous successive improvements. The application 
of steam as a motive power was probably originally made by 
Hero, who, 150 b.c., constructed, or at least described, an 
^olipile. This was a hollow sphere, with hollow bent arms 
attached ; water was placed inside the sphere and heated : 
when steam generated, it issued from the arms and caused the 
sphere to rotate, by reacting on the air. A model of this, the 
primogenitor of the modem steam-engine, can be bought at 
many opticians' shops for about one shilling, and in the streets 
of London for one penny. 

The first known practical application of steam to perform 
useful work was made by Thomas Savery, in 1698, who ar- 
ranged what was then called a fire-engine, to raise water to 
a height of about 19 feet. Savery's engine acted on the 
principle of the barometer ; the water was forced upwards by 
atmospheric pressure into an empty receiver, and was after* 
wards carried higher by steam pressure. 

The commencement of the eighteenth century began the 
first steps towards the development of the modem form of 
engine. Savery and Newcomen made improvements which 
were perfected by James Watt, who was bom at Glasgow in 
1737. Amongst other valuable improvements he first con- 
trived to convert the reciprocating motion into a rotary one by 
means of the crank. In the year 1800, Watt retired from 
business, leaving the steam-engine in much the same condition 
as we find it now. The application of steam-power for loco- 
motion, both on land and on water, followed ; and now sta- 
tionary, locomotive, and marine engines, driven by steam, 
are distributed all over the civilised world. 


Thomas Newcomen was the first to arrange the moving 
parts of the steam-engine in such a way that the steam did 
not act directly on the water to be raised He was the first 
to work out the idea of a piston, which made a distinct ad- 
vance in the application of steam as a general moving power. 
Newcomen's engine consisted of three principal parts : the 
boiler, a vessel in which the steam was generated; the 
cylinder, in which steam was condensed; and the beam, 
the movements of which followed the alternate admission 
and condensation of the steam, and communicated the 
motion to the pump-rod. The cylinder was placed directly 
above the boiler, from which the steam passed through a stop- 
cock into the lower part of the cylinder, and acted against the 
piston, which then made a stroke upwards, the pump-rod end 
of the beam being balanced to suit the pressure. When the 
piston was at the end of its stroke, a cock was opened, which 
admitted cold water, this condensed the steam in the cylinder. 
A ^6uum being thus obtained, the atmosphere acted above 
the piston, forcing it down with a pressure of 15 lb. per square 
inch of surface, the motion of the piston causing the up-stroke 
of the pump-rods,^ water, &c. By the successive repetition of 
these operations, the engine was steadily worked. New- 
comen's was a single-acting engine, the steam acting on 
one side of the piston only, and was called an atmospheric 
engine, because it depended upon the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere to perform the down stroke, which did the useful work. 

In the modem steam-engine, which owes its general design 
to Watt, the dimensions of the cylinder, to an extent, indicate 
the power ; but the pressure of steam must also be considered. 
The friction in models is very great in proportion to their size, 
and for this reason very small ones are often barely able to 
generate sufficient power to keep themselves going. The bore 
of the cylinder governs the area of the piston, and this mul- 


tiplied by the pressure of steam and the length of stroke gives 
the power of the engine. 

Let us compare the. power of two small cylinders, one \ la 
in bore and i in. in stroke, the other i-in. bore and 2-in. 
stroke. We will suppose the pressure of steam to be the same 
in both cases, say, lo lb. to the square inch. Speaking 
off-hand, many persons are apt to say that one cylinder is 
twice the size of the other, and, as a natural deduction, twice 
as powerful. Comparison will at once show the fallacy of the 

The area of the |-in. cylinder is nearly -^^ of a square inch, 
that of the other nearly -j^. Thus we see that the larger one. 
has four times the area ; also the length of stroke is twice as. 
much. According to the rule given above we find the powers 
thus: 1*^ X lo X I = 2 lb. and -^^ x lo x 2 = 16 lb. So 
that the power of the larger cylinder is precisely eight times 
that of the small one. In every case it is necessary to allow 
a certain percentage of the power to overcome friction. The 
smaller the engine the greater will be the percentage lost in 
friction. These simple facts will at once show that size is a 
most important consideration. If the friction in the small 
engine was 2 lb. the power would not drive it, whereas if it 
were that much in the large one there would still be 14 lb. of 
available power. 

A cylinder i f-in. bore and the same length of stroke, viz., 
2 in., would give exactly double the power of the i-in. bore 
cylinder just mentioned. If the bore was increased to 2 in., 
the power would be exactly four times that of the i-in, bore, 
the length of stroke and pressure of steam remaining the same 
in each. 

The velocity of the piston also forms a factor in calculating 
the power, which is increased in the same proportion as the 
velocity. It will be readily understood that when the pressure 


bf the steam is constant, the speed of the engine will depend 
on the amount of work it has to do. It must also be remem« 
bered that the pressure of steam against the piston is by no 
means necessarily the same as it is in the boiler. In passing 
from the boiler to the cylinder the steam pressure is always 
reduced, and the greater the distance and more exposed or 
tortuous the steam-pipe, the greater will be the loss of 

Everyone knows that the power of steam-engines is given 
in "horse-power." This was a term originated by James 
Watt, and it is now universally adopted. The mechanical 
equivalent is a lifting power that will raise 33,000 lb. one 
foot high in one minute. On this estimate the power of an 
engine is cdculated. The rule is this : Multiply the pressure 
in pounds per square inch on the piston by velocity per 
minute and divide by 33,000. The velocity of the piston is 
twice the length of stroke in feet multiplied by the number 
of revolutions per minute. 

Let us calculate the horse-power of the i x 2-in. cylinder, 
already dealt with at a pressure of 10 lb., the speed being 100 
revolutions per minute. By the previous calculation we 
found that the pressure was 16 lb. The velocity is -3^ x 100 
= 333 (^eet). Multiply these together, 16 x 33^ = 533^, 

and divide gggg^ = -016 That is, the engine is y^f^ 

of a horse-power, or capable of raising 528 lb. one foot high 
in one minute. That is supposing all the power was available 
for duty. In large engines about 20 per cent is allowed 
for friction, and in the model we must allow at least 50 per 
cent. This allowance for friction at once reduces the calcu- 
lated power to half. 

Thtfawer of an engine is the nominal, and the duty is the 
actual work that it will perform. When the horse-power of 
an engine is spoken of, it must be taken in a qualified sense. 


By urging the furnace greater effect may be obtained, and by 
keeping the furnace low an effect less than the nominal 
power is produced. Duty is the term used to represent the 
amount of work absolutely done ; it disregards the size of 
the engine, and simply inquires how much work is done by a 
given expenditure of fuel. True economy in working will 
add to the duty of an engine, whilst woeful waste in no way 
affects the power. 

Let us now trace the effect of the steam when admitted to 
the cylinder. When the governor valve is opened the steam 
flows along the pipe to the slide valve chest, and if one of the 
ports is open it reaches the cylinder. In traversing the 
pipes which conduct it to the cylinder the steam is cooled 
considerably and its force diminished. In course of time the 
parts become heated to a certain degree, and then the loss of 
power is less. When the steam enters the cylinder it at once 
exerts a certain force on the piston. This has the effect of 
turning the crank stiaft, and in due course the slide valve 
closes the steam inlet. Now the steam within the cylindei 
acts expansively, and continues to drive the crank shaft to the 
end of the stroke. Then the exhaust port is opened, and allows 
the spent or dead steam to escape. At the same time the 
inlet at the other end is opened and the live steam rushes in 
and exerts its full pressure on the piston, causing it to travel 
in the opposite direction. The opening and shutting of the 
steam ports is effected by an eccentric on the crank shaft 
In treating of the construction of these parts, the relative sizes 
are given and the correct motion explained. 

Boilers, which are the vessels in which water is converted 
into steam, are usually described by their shape and position. 
They may be cylindrical, spherical, &c., and horizontal, verti- 
cal, &c« The construction also forms a distinguishing cha- 
racteristic. Tubes are usually inserted in the boiler to convey 


the heat from the fire. These tubes — which are more properly 
called flues, especially in large boilers — vary in number from 
one of large size to scores of small ones, thus naming the 
respective boilers single-flue or multiflue. It may be advisable 
to mention here that tubular boilers are those in which the 
water circulates in the tubes, and the fire impinges on the 
outer surface. When the fire operates inside the tube it is 
called a flue, A tube carries water ; a flue carries flame and 
the volatile products of combustion. 

Boilers, or steam generators, that are used to contain the 
water which, when converted into steam, drives the engine, 
require to be sufliciently strong to withstand an internal or 
bursting pressure. This pressure is very great in high-pressure 
engines, but in common models it is generally very low, and 
seldom exceeds 20 lb. to the square inch. The evaporating 
capacity of the boiler is according to the requirements of the 
engine it has to supply. The resistance of the piston to the 
steam shows the pressure at which it should be supplied* 
Boilers are generally tested, by means of a hydraulic pump, to 
stand a pressure of at least double that at which they are 
intended to be used. It is unsafe to generate steam in any 
vessel that has not been properly tested. This fact cannot be 
too strongly impressed upon the mind of the reader. 

Suppose a double-action cylinder, i-in. bore and 2-in. 
stroke, is to make 100 revolutions of the crank per minute, 
let us see how much steam will be wanted to drive it. The 
area of the piston is '785 in., and each revolution of the 
crank will require the cylinder to be filled twice — ^that is, one 
stroke in each direction. This will take a column of steam 
•785 in. in diameter and 4 in. long for each revolution, or 314 
cubic inches of steam per minute. If the speed is greater the 
quantity of steam must be increased proportionately; and 
when running at the rate of 1,000 revolutions per minute — a 


speed often attained — 3,140 cubic inches of steam will be 
wanted to supply the cylinder. That is at the rate of about 
100 cubic feet per hour. 

The pressure of the steam has not yet been taken into 
account, but it obviously forms a most important factor in the 
calculation. Water in an open vessel boils at a temperature 
of 2i2*Fahr. Provided that the vessel allows the steam to 
escape freely, all the heat that can be applied will only gene- 
rate steam at the same pressure, though it will escape faster. 
As the bubbles of steam ascend to the surface they escape, 
having only the pressure of the atmosphere to overcome^ 
When water is confined in a closed vessel, like the boiler of a 
steam-engine, the temperature may be raised to considerably 
above the usual boiling-point. The heat is always propor- 
tionate to the pressure, and steam at a pressure of 120 lb. per 
square inch is equivalent to the heat represented by 345'' Fahr. 

Tables are published showing the relation of the heat to the 
pressure, and a short one is indicated below. 

A correct knowledge of the fact that pressure depends on 
temperature cannot be urged too strongly on the mind of the 
model engineer. In many model boilers it is quite impos- 
sible to raise the heat sufficiently to prodiuce an adequate 
pressure. Boiling water at 212* Fahr. does not produce any 
available pressure of steam, it merely counterbalances the 
weight of the atmosphere, which is 15 lb. to the square inch. 
By increasing the heat, which can only be done in a closed 
vessel, available pressure is obtained. Thus 228"* = 5 lb., 
241® = 10 lb., 251^ = 15 lb., and so on. The steam, and the 
water from which it is generated, and with which it remains in 
contact, have both the same temperature. 

A cubic foot of water weighs 62*5 lb., and it will produce 
882 cubic feet of steam, at a pressure of 15 lb. to the square 
inch above the normal atmiospheric pressure ; this is equal to 


a temperature of 251** Fahr, If the pressure is raised to 
1501b., which requires a temperature of 371*', only 187 cubic 
feet of steam will be produced. Steam is elastic, and hence 
the more it is compressed the greater will be its force. If 
one cubic inch of steam, at a pressure of 30 lb., is admitted 
into a cylinder, and the supply cut off when half filled, the 
steam will expand till it has filled the cavity, and in increasing 
its bulk twofold its force will diminish in inversie ratio. The 
pressure will therefore diminish to 151b. to the square inch 
The expansive force of steam is always at work on the piston 
of the engine, and it varies in accordance with the arrange- 
ment of the valves. 

In order to supply the requisite quantity of steam, boilers 
should evaporate at the rate of one cubic foot of water per 
hour per horse-power ; that will produce 1,700 cubic feet of 
free steam. The capacity of a boiler should be four or five 
times as much as the water it boils off per hour, and the steam 
space should be at least 10 times as large as the consumption 
of steam at each stroke. The heating surface should be from 
15 to 20 square feet per horse-power. Many circumstances 
tend to modify these rules, but they may be taken as fairly 
trustworthy in ordinary practice. 



SHIS handybook is intended to supply the infonnation 
most generally useful to a maker of model engines. 
It is assumed that some knowledge of mechanical manipula- 
tion has been acquired by the reader. He should be able 
to use the lathe with tolerable cer- 
tainty of result ; in short, the handy- 
books which I have already produced 
in this series all form useful guides for 
the tyro maker of model engines. 

In order to give familiar illustradona 
of those types of engines commonly 
forming the stock-in-tiade of the usual 
dealers, the blocks in this chapter 
have been borrowed from their cata- 
logues. The most inexpensive type of 
working model is shown at Fig. i, and is 
more fully described in a later chapter. 
A similar engine, but slightly improved 
in its design, is shown at B*^. 3 on the 
opposite page. 

Engines shown in the later chapters, 
and all the fittings belonging to them, 
are mostly original, illustrated from model engines that have 
been made specially, and which are not commonly to be 
purchased, either complete or in parts, from the usual trade 
supplies. Those readers who have acquired some manual 


dexterity in the use of tools will find little difficulty in making 
the engines illustrated, if the instructions given are carefully 
followed. In each case details of each process incidental 
to our engineering work will be carefully described, so that 
those even but slightly acquainted with the mechanical arti 
vill be able to comprehend the method of procedure. 

One of probably the tiniest working models in the world is 
in the possession of Messrs. Penn (of Greenwich), the eminent 
makers of the great engines of which it is the reduced counter- 
part. It will stand on a silver threepenny-piece; but it really 
covers less space, for its base-plate measures ~ 

only f of an inch by about ■^. The engines 
are of the trunk fonn introduced by Penn. 
They are fitted with reversing gear, and are 
generally similar in design to the great engines 
with which ships are equipped. The cylinders 
measure ^ of an inch in diameter, and the 
trunk -i^. The length of stroke is ^ of an 
inch. From the extreme smallness of this ' 
model, a few of the most minute details have 
necessarily been omitted; some of the parts Toy 5ne with 
are so small that a powerful magnifying-glass is Oscillating 
required to show their form. The bolts which 
hold the engine together are only ^ of an inch in diameter, 
and these are all duly furnished with hexagonal nuts, which 
can be loosened and tightened by a Liliputian spanner. 
The weight of the whole model is less than a threepenny- 

Another tiny working model is that of the famous Great 
Britain steamship, made to a acale of ^ of an inch to the 
foot. The length of the model is about eight inches, and the 
breadth aliout i^ inch. It is fiill-ri^ed, with six masts and 
their accompanying spars, and has all the hatchways and deck 


fittings. The deck of this tiny vessel is lifted off and, by .he 
aid of a powerful magDifier, an accurate model of the original 
engines with which the Great Briiatn was fitted may be 
critically examined. This model is so small that it stands 




upon less space than the area of a shilling. The ship may be 
launched in an annular trough of water, and, when a tap is 
turned, off goes the tiny Bhip to circumnavigate its little sea. 
The total weight of the boat, with deck and rigging, engines, 
boiler, all complete, is less than an ounce I The weight of 


the actual working part of the engines — that is, all excepting 
the boiler — is just that of a sovereign. 

The varieties of model engines are in many cases indicated 
by their names, but they may be classed into two principal 
divisions — those in which the cylinder is fixed, and the ad- 
mission of the steam is regulated by means of a sliding-valve 
moving parallel with the piston, and actuated by an eccentric 
on the crank shaft ; and those engines which have the 
cylinder pivoted at right angles to its bore, so that the rotary 
motion of the crank, coupled direct with the piston-rod, im- 
parts an oscillatory movement to the cylinder. In this class 

the steam ports of the cylinder are alternately brought 
immediately over a hole, through which issues the steam from 
the boiler, and an exhaust hole, through which the steam 
escapes from the cylinder. The former are called .slide-valve 
engines, and the latter oscillating engines. There are many 
varieties of each class, but the difTerence pointed out is so 
obviously discemable that it affords a ready means of dis- 

Stationary engines are intended to be fixed, as are those 
used for driving machinery. Portable engines are self-con- 


tained, so that they maybe moved from place to place, and put 
to temporary work. They are often used for agricultural pur- 
poseSy such as for driving steam ploughs, thrashing machines, 
&c. The illustration. Fig. 3, on page 12, shows an engine 
of this type. It is mounted on wheels, so that it may be 
drawn by horses along the highway roads. 

Locomotives are those which are intended to travel by 
steam, and are self-moving. Marine engines arc those used 
to propel ships. Figs. 4 and 5 are types. Of these classes 
we shall, for the present, exclude locomotives, which are much 
more complicated in their construction and consequently 
are more difficult to make. 

Horizontal engines are those having the cylinder lying with 
its axis in a horizontal position. 

There are many modifications in the designs, but the 
essential characteristic is that the cylinder be placed with its 
bore lying horizontally. The illustration on the next page, 
Fig. 6, shows a horizontal engine of a usual type. The bed- 
plate is sheet metal, mounted on six pillars, and cut away to 
allow the crank-arm and cross-head to pass. The six pillars 
often have their lower ends screwed into a wooden board 
slightly larger than the metal bed-plate. The crank-shaft 
carries the fly-wheel at one end, and the belt pulley at the 

Vertical engines have the cylinder upright; sometimes they 
are designated by the latter adjective. Beam engines have an 
oscillating beam, as shown at Fig. 10, p. 19; one end is con- 
nected to the piston, and the other to a rod which drives the 
crank. Cylinders are single-acting when the steam is admitted 
only at one end, and consequently with these the crank is pro- 
pelled only during half of its rotation. Double-acting cylinders 
are provided with valves which admit the steam at each end 
of the cylinder alternately. Oscillating cylinders are fitted to 


osdlUte with the motion of the crank, see Figs. 43 to 46, and 
the steam-valves are usually contrived to act by this oscilia- 
ting motion. Slide-valve cylinders have a eliding valve 

worked by a rod connected to an eccentric on the cranK- 
•hafl, which opens the steam pons to alternately admit live 


(learn and exhaust at both ends ot' the cylinder. Slide-valve 

cylinders are invariably double-acting. 

A semi-porUble engine, with oscillating cylinder, is shown 
at Fig. 7. This is self-contained, and may be moved about, 
but is not mounted on wheels. A slide-valve cylinder engine 
of similar design is shown at Fig. S. 

Semi-poT table OscilUling 

Small model engines are composed mainly of brass castings, 
and of steel which requires no special forging for the purpose. 
The screws or bolts used to unite the parts are usually pur- 
chased in a finished state. Makers of these employ machinery, 
which acts almost automatically, and the screws are sold at a 
tcry cheap rate. Laige models require special forgings fct 


the crank-shaft, and the castings employed are of iron, which 
is considerably cheaper than brass. 

The castings are made from patterns which are counterparts 
of the object required. These are imbedded in sand, and 
leave a matrix, into which molten metal is poured, producing, 
on solidifying,' a facsimile of the pattern. The operation is 
always carried out in a foundry where the necessary furnaces 
and moulding appliances are at hand. The founders charge 
for the rough castings by weight, and the price is reckoned to 
cover the cost of labour over the value of the metal. It is, 
however, necessary to supply the requisite patterns before a 
founder can proceed to do his part of the work. 

The Pattern Maker's Handybook may be consulted in 
this connection with advantage. 

All vendors of castings have patterns from which their cast- 
ings are moulded, and of course they charge, in addition to 
the cost of labour and a profit on the cost of the metal, some* 
thing for the use of the patterns. The patterns for a founder's 
use require certain modifications, which it is unnecessary to 
explain in detail. Some are made in two or more parts, with 
pins to hold them together. Some have projections affixed to 
them ; these make prints in the mould to receive cores, which 
form holes in the casting. Those patterns which enter deeply 
into the moulding sand are made tapering, to draw out eaitily. 
In all cases they must be made sufficiently large to allow for 
shrinkage in the metal. Ordinary iron castings shrink about 
one-eighth of an inch to the foot ; brass about half as much 
again. Pattern-makers use a '* contraction-rule " to work by ; 
this is made longer than the standard measurement and 
patterns made according to it are the correct size to allow for 
sbtinkage. All these details are fully explained in the Handy- 
book above mentioned* 

,' Models are often made with the boilers and engine£( forminjg 



but one machiDc Fig. 9 shovs an ordinary type of tLis kind. 
It is very like the horizontal engine shown on p^e 15, Fig. 6, 
but has an oscillating cylinder. A plain cylindrical boiler 
placed horizontally is let partially through the bed-plate, and 
the heat is applied by a spirit lamp beneath. 

A complete beam engine is shown at Fig. 10, and needs no 
Bpecial description. The boiler of this engine is placed 

From what has been said it will be readily understood that 
Tendon of castings charge various prices for their goods. 
Not in ervy case i* tiie quali^ in accordance vitii the pric^ 


»nd it is difficult to give even approximate sums that should 
be pmd for good castings. Speaking generally, the price ii 
regulated by the weight, and the rate per pound is decided by 
the seller. In the catalogues issued by various firms will be 

Baam Eagiae with Vertical Boiler, 
found the prices charged. As an example of the difference, 
a certain size of bolts made by one wholesale firm, are retailed 
by shopkeepers at rates varying from 33 to aoo per cent, 
profit ; the same rule probably holds good in all other items, 
Aoother form of engine, differing from those previously 


illnstmted, is shown at Fig. ii. This type b well suited for 
model work. The ^igiaving illustrates a semi-poitabte Robey 
engiae ; the smoke-stack is jointed aod lowered for travelling. 

lilie boiler forms the foundation on which are lixed the 
cylinder, the crank-shaft bearings, and othei parts of the 


Those readers who are not possessed of a lathe will not 
have the means of finishing the cylinders and some other 
parts which have to be turned. These can, however, be 
bought in various stages of completion, and the beginner, 
armed with only a screw-driver, may now purchase the com- 
ponent parts, and, having screwed his engine together, he may 
daim some merit for his share in the erecting department. 

Sets of castings quite finished and ready to be screwed 
together are now sold. These are generally of the cheaper 
class, and, tacked on cards, may be seen in the windows of 
opticians. The prices for the complete engine, wit)i boiler, 
lamp and all other parts, range firom about five shillings 

A few words on the better type of partially finished parts. 
These castings are more expensive than those quite rough, 
but they afford an opportunity of displaying considerable skill 
and judgment in completing them. 

Boring the cylinders is the operation most likely to baffle 
the t3n:o. This is done by vendors of castings for various 
prices, according to size, and this charge usually includes turn- 
ing the flanges ready to receive the covers, and also boring 
the steam-ways and cutting the port-holes. When all this has 
been done it will be necessary to use a lathe to turn the covers 
for the cylinder, and also for making the piston. 

The cylinder may be purchased complete with the covers 
screwed on and the slide-valve fitted. Similarly every piece 
of an engine may be bought separately in a finished state, so 
that they only require putting together, and when the young 
engineer has not the tools required for doing the work, his 
best plan will be to purchase the finished parts. 

An examination of a finished engine will show that nearly 
every part of it has been fashioned on a lathe. This machine 
is indispensable for all kinds of engineering work, but, being 


somewhat costly, tyros are frequently compelled to forego its 
ownership, and in this case get the necessary turning executed 
by a professional latheman. Those who are happily pos- 
sessed of this king of machines — the father of mechanism as it 
has been aptly called — vrill have the advantage of being them- 
selves able to execute the work throughout For want of 
space we cannot discuss the lathe best suited for the work 
treated upon in this handbook. There are now many useful 
lathes manufactured in large numbers, and which may be pur- 
chased at a moderate cost. The fitting up of a lathe oneself 
is not an altogether impossible task, though there is some 
really very high-class work necessary to produce a good lathe 
suited for model engine making. 

The young beginner should not choose a very small lathe ; 
it is a mistake to suppose that better or finer work can be done 
on miniature lathes. Three inch centres — ^that is, a lathe 
which swings six inches — ^is the smallest useful size, though 
one about four and a-half inch centres would be better adapted 
for model engine making, and a larger lathe is necessary for 
some of this work. A slide-rest is an almost indispensable 
adjunct to a lathe required for turning parallel cylinders in 
metaL By means of a slide-rest, steam cylinders of any dia- 
meter of bore, within the capacity of the lathe, can be bored 
true, but without it a special boring bar is necessary for each 
size. « 

The Metal Turner's Handybook, which is a companion 
volume to this, contains illustrations and descriptions of many 
lathes and their appurtenances suited for model engine mak- 
ing. Various chucks and tools employed in this and similar 
work are also shown in that book. 

A few particulars of the different kinds of engines which a 
beginner may make will assist him in deciding as to the form 
and size best suited to his rec^uirements. An idea of th9 


general forms and peculiarities of engines may be gleaned 
from the illustrations already given and from what has been 
said in this chapter. It is entirely at the discretion of the 
maker whether he will build a vertical or a horizontal engine 
— ^whether it shall have oscillating or slide-valve cylinders, and 
whether it shall be of microscopic dimensions or a powerful 
model. All these points are for the consideration of the con- 
structor, though some hints will be of service to and assist him 
in arriving at the desired result — that is the production of a 
working model 


OHE most siniple form of toy-engine is that illustrated 
below, and fully described in detail in this chapter. 
It consists of a tin boiler, a single-action oscillating cylinder, 
andafly-wheel. These 
parts are sold, ready 
for putting together, 
at a very low price, 
and a complete en- 
gine may be bought 
for a couple of shil- 
lings, though one usu- 
ally described as of 
" superior make " at 
twice that sum is by 
far a preferable in- 
FiG. I* Fig. 13. vestment 

Two view£ of Toy Oscillating' Engina, The drawings re- 

present the most simple way of constructing a steam-engine, 
and, if the workmanship is fairly good, a working model will 
be produced. First is the boiler ; a tin box i| in. deep and 
3 in. in diameter will serve for this. The joint at the side 
should be made by folding the edges of metal one over the 
other, and then soldering. The top and bottom are both 
soldered steam-tight on their respective places. The top 
of the boiler must be provided with small bosses of metal, 


soldered on the inner side, into which the pillar (Fig. 14) 
and the safety-valve (Fig. 18) are screwed. 

The tin plate is not sufficiently thick to afford a hold for the 
threads on the pillar and on the valve. A disc m 
of brass, say tl>e- size of a sixpence, and ^ in. W 
thick, is soldered on the under side of the lid, ^^j W^ 
and the holes, which are tapped to receive '& 

the pillar and valve, are bored and threaded ^}^' ^^' 
before the lid is fixed. By this means a strong pius^ showing 
hold is secured for the fittings. The screw ^'^^^ ^°'*'- .. 
plug in Fig. 12 is similarly provided for. When each piece ia 
screwed into its place, a little hemp or cotton, placed between 
the shoulder of the ** fitting " and the surface of the tin plate, 
will assist to ensure a steam-tight joint. 

The standard, or pillar, is brass, about 2 in. long from end 
to end. Any form may be given to it, according to fancy, the 
one shown in Fig. 14 being perhaps as good as any. The 
lower part is circular, \ in. in diameter, and it has a flat face 
on one side, against which the valve-face of the cylinder 
works. Fig. 14 shows this. The centre of the pillar is bored 
up in the middle of the screwed part to meet one of the two 
lower holes, it is immaterial which. The other hole is bored 
right through the pillar to the opposite side, and forms the 
exhaust port, the one communicating with the central hole in 
the pillar being the steam port. For the sake of distinction 
we will suppose the hole to the left is bored into the central 
hole, and that to the right is bored through the pillar ; then 
when the pillar is screwed on to the boiler and steam is gene- 
rated, it issues from the porthole on the left. 

The upper end of the pillar is bored through at right angles 
to the flat at the bottom (see Fig. 13). Through the top a 
piece of brass tubing about f in. long is fixed, generally by 
soldering ; this is the bearing for the crank-shaft. The crank- 



shaft itself is a piece of steel wire bent to the form required. 
The fly-wheel is fixed to one end, and prevents the shaft 
coming out of the bearing, the bend of the arm serving the 
same purpose at the other end 

The cylinder itself is shown at Fig. 14, and also in Figs. la 
and 13. The piston, piston-rod, and piston-head which fits the 
crank-pin are shown in Fig. 15. It will be evident that the 
dimensions of this engine are microscopic. The bore of the 
cylinder is -j^^ in., and the barrel itself is often made of triblet- 
drawn brass tube. The enlarged part at the bottom is a casting 
with a flat face on one side, as shown in Fig. 14. Some makers 
use a casting for the entire cylinder, but the tube is perhaps 
the cheaper method of making. A piece of good tube is 
sufliciently accurate in the bore for use as bought, so that the 
trouble of boring the cylinder is dispensed with. The base, 
for the tube to fit in, is bored to the external diameter, and 
the tube fixed with solder. The lid or cover is fixed only by 
being snapped on. Its object is only to guide the piston-rod. 

Cylinders may be easily bored by the aid of a slide rest, 
if such an attachment forms part of the lathe available. 
Failing that, it is advisable to have the cylinder bored by 
someone having the requisite tools, or to purchase a cylinder 
casting already bored. A makeshift way of doing the job is 
to make a bit of the required size and broach out the cylinder. 
The bit is made of a flat bar of steel made true oa the 
edges, and properly tempered ; a bar \ in. thick would do. 
Pieces of wood are put on both sides of the bar to keep it 
central and prevent either edge digging in and so spoiling the 
bore. It is improbable that a satisfactory job would be made 
by means of this latter arrangement, and one of the methods 
previously mentioned would be far preferable. Another make- 
shift would be to solder a piece of triblet-drawn brass tube 
inside the brass casting. 


A reference to Fig. 14 will show the working of the oscil- 
lating valve. The face of the pillar is shown on the right. On 
thiS| to the left, is the hole from which the live steam issues, 
and to the right is the exhaust hole through which the dead 
steam escapes. These holes are technically called ports. The 
upper hole is bored through the pillar, and takes the trunnion 
or pin on which the cylinder oscillates. Fig. 13 shows this 
trunnion pin prolonged and having a nut on the end. A 
spiral spring around the trunnion, between the nut and the 
pillar, keeps the valve-face in close contact with the pillar-face. 
Now, turning to Fig. 14, on the left is the cylinder, with two 
holes — the upper, into which the trunnion is screwed, and the 
lower, the steam-way. When the cylinder is in the position 
shown in Figs. 12 and 13, the port-hole of the cylinder is over 
the solid metal between the holes in the pillar. On turning 
the fly-wheel the crank draws the piston-rod out and inclines 
the cylinder sideways, bringing the port-hole to the left* 
The live steam from the boiler at once enters and forces the 
piston upwards, and on the crank reaching the highest point 
the cylinder is again vertical, and the hole in it is midway 
between port and exhaust. The momentum of the fly-wheel 
carries the crank round and brings the hole opposite the 
exhaust, allowing the steam to escape. The only force that 
keeps the engine going during this part of the time is the 
momentum of the fly-wheel. When the cylinder again inclines 
to the opposite side, the hole comes over the steam-port, and 
force — in the form of live steam — ^is again applied under the 
piston. This series of actions will keep the engine gomg. 

The single-action oscillating cylinder, being supplied with 
steam at one end only, exerts power only during half the 
revolution of the crank. The return stroke is dependent 
entirely on the momentum of the fly-wheel, which also has to 
drive the dead steam out of the cylinder. Steam acts only 


in the lower part of the cylinder, and as there is no power 
tending to force off the cover it may be snapped on like the 
lid of a pill-box. 

The piston (Fig. 15) has for its head a disc of brass, with a 
V-shaped groove in its edge. This is packed with hemp or 

N lamp-cotton, to make it fit the cy- 
linder steam-tight. The piston-rod is 
a steel wire, about x^io* diameter. It 
Fig. 15. Piston. jg ^^^^ jj^ ^^ piston-head by riveting, 

to save the trouble of screwmg. The end of the rod has a 
small piece of brass fixed on it, which forms the cross-head, 
and fits on the crank-pin. 

The crank is itself all in one piece. A straight length forms 
the shaft. It is bent at right angles to form the throw, and a 
piece bent from this parallel to the shaft forms the pin. This 
is the most simple way of making a crank, and when large 
quantities are made the wire is bent upon a template. 

A better type of crank is made by using a steel rod 
for the shaft, with a brass arm riveted to it, and a steel pin 
riveted into that. In Chapter IV., on the construction of 
the horizontal engine, will be found a more complete de- 
scription of such a crank, and an illustration of it is shown at 
Fig. 32. 

The safety-valve is very important as a safeguard in work- 
ing. Though sometimes omitted from model engines, yet 
safety-valves are essential for security. They are intended to 
allow steam to escape freely from the boiler when the pressure 
exceeds a certain amount, and thus a dangerous explosion is 
provided against. 

The types of safety-valve are shown in the accompanying 
figures. The weighted lever (Fig. 16) is most simple, and 
best when there is no chance of it becoming useless through ^ 
motion. For locomotives and ships a spring safety-valve as^ 



diown at Fig. i8 is used, and for models the small spring- 
valve (Fig. 17) is used. 

Fig. 16. 
Weighted Lever Safety-Valve. 

Fig. 17. 
Spring Safety- Valve* 

FIO. z8. 
Spiing Lever Safety-Valve. 


The valve used for the toy-engine now being described is 
illustrated at Fig. 19. It has a spiral spring to keep the valve 
on its seat. This is effective when the power of 
the spring has been definably gauged; but when 
the valves are put together haphazard, no depen- 
dence can be placed upon the pressure at which the 
valve will blow off. 
The body of the valve is shown in section. The 
^ J ' valve is fitted on the rod: it rests oh the conical 

Section of ^ ' 

Safety- seat of the body, and is pressed down by the spiral 


spring within the barrel. The body is screwed into 
the top part of the boiler by the thread at the bottom, and 
steam, coming up the hole, presses the under side of the valve. 
When the pressure of the steam is sufficient to overcome the 
pressure of the spiral spring, the valve is lifted, and the steam 
escapes through the holes shown at the top of the barrel. 

The cover is screwed on the body-part, and confines the 
spring. It has a hole through its centre, to allow the valve- 
rod to pass. Especial attention should always be given to 
the safety-valve at the time heat is applied to the boiler. See 
that the valve is not fixed to its seat, nor in any way confined, 
as an explosion may follow if these precautions are neglected. 

The engine shown by the illustration is usually mounted on 
a three-legged stand, which raises it from two to three inches. 
A wire stand maybe made according to fancy, or perhapt 
some contrivance may be improvised to support the boiler at 
a convenient height for applying heat beneath. A glance at 
the illustrations on pages 10 and 11 will show this. 

A small lamp, burning methylated spirit-rthat is, spirits of 
wine — will supply the requisite heat. It should have a clean 
and dry wick of lamp cotton. The size of the flame may be 
regulated to a certain extent by the quantity of wick that is 
drawn out. The lamp must not be quite filled with spirit; 


about two-thirds^ full is ample, and then the spirit will not be 
liable to overflow when warmed. 

When charging the boiler, it is best to use boiling water 
from a kettle. This will save lots of time that would be lost 
in heating cold water with the spirit-lamp. The water is 
poured into the boiler through the water plug-hole (Fig. 12). 
The boiler should be only about half filled with water. The 
plug is replaced, and the lighted lamp put under the boiler, 
when steam will be generated in due course ; and if the fly- 
wheel is turned in the right direction by hand for a few turns, 
the engine will presently work of its own accord. 

It is scarcely necessary to repeat that the engine just de< 
scribed is of the most simple description, and every detail not 
strictly necessary is omitted. 



|NGINES of the horizontal type are usually employed 
to furnish the power required to drive fixed ma- 
chinery in factories. The construction is simple, and the 
-form is adapted for fixing readily wherever a tolerably level 
foundation is to be found. 

The two illustrations (pages 34 and 35) show both sides of 
a newly-designed small power engine, by Messrs. Lucas and 
Davies. This design possesses several characteristic features. 
The main casting is modelled from the I-sectioned girder ; 
this gives strength without unnecessary weight. The cylinder 
is bolted to the main casting; the guide for the piston- 
head being solid with the latter. By this plan much of the 
usual work of fitting is obviated. Some special tools are 
necessary to bore the guide-ways true, and to face the end 
against which the cylinder abuts, but when this is done the 
completion of the work is very easy, as but few parts have 
to be fitted. The illustrations show the engine fitted with 
governors and pump. Four outline drawings which show 
all principal dimensions are given on page 33, The 
Figs. 20, 21, 22 and 23, are reduced to ^ scale from the 
drawings of an engine having the cylinder 2-in. bore and 4 -in. 
stroke. The diameter of fly-wheel is 12 in. Complete sets 
of castings for engines this size and also for one smaller size 
and two larger sizes are supplied by the designers. 

The several illustrations given next, show another simple 







engine; they are drawn to scale, and they will show at a 
glance constructive details which could not well be explained 
in letterpress. Fig. 26 shows a plan view, and Fig. 27 an eleva- 
tion of the complete 

engine. The bed- 
plate is the founda- 
tion on which the 
parts of the engine 
are fixed. A piece 
Fig. 26. of sheet brass is used 

Plan of Horizontal Engine. for small models, but 

larger ones have cast-iron foundations. Cylinders i^in. in 
thfe bore and upwards are usually mounted on iron bed-plates, 
the saving in cost of metal being considerable when the cast- 
ings are so large. 
Cast bed-plates have 
a moulded edge, 
which adds both to 
their strength and 
appearance. Sheet 
metal has to be 
mounted on columns 
sufficiently high to 

Fig. 27. 
Elevation of Horizontal Engine. 

raise the fly-wheel above the ground-level. 

The cylinder is shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The steam-chest 
containing the slide-valve is shown in Fig. 26 only. The fly- 
wheel fixed on the shaft. Fig. 30, which has at its opposite 
end the crank (Fig. 32). The piston-rod is shown passing 
through a guide (Fig. 33) fixed to the bed by two screws. The 
connecting-rod fiom the piston to the crankpin is shown in 
Figs. 26 and 27. The eccentric is shown at Fig. 35, the rod 
from it to the steam-chest is called the eccentric-rod. Two 
screws fix the cylinder to the bed-plate. These references are 


sufficient to enable the inexperienced reader to identify the 
principal parts of this engine. By carefully studying the draw- 
ings the whole combination of the machine will be understood* 

Each of the chief component parts which possess any in- 
tricacy of detail is shown on a much larger scale. The 
description of each one may be taken as generally applicable , 
to engines of the type shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The dimen- 
sions are suited to the size known as "f-in. bore and ij-in. 
stroke." These measurements refer to the cylinder. It will not . 
be difficult to modify any of the minor details to suit another 
size, whether it be larger or smaller. 

A section of the cylinder is shown in Fig. 28; the piston and, 
its rod are absent, to prevent confusion of the parts. The 
cylinder with the covers on is 2 in. long and if in. diameter 
across the flanges. The bore is fin. and if in. (full) long. 
The face of the cylinder where the valve works is level with 
the diameter of the flanges. This face is shown at Fig. 29, 
where the size and position of each port-hole may be seen. 
The rectangle represents the steam-chest itself, and the four 
small circles are the screw-holes in the valve-face for attaching 
the steam-chest. 

Returning to Fig. 28, the steam-ways are shown at the top. 
These are drilled from the ends to ang 

meet the inlet steam-ports, which are yyy^^ ^^ ^3,,,,,y,,^ 

closed by the slide-valve (see Fig. 29). \ 

The exhaust-way is in the middle, and ^^ 

the port-hole communicating with it ^^ 

needs no special mention. The steam ^p»ajjgpaaaajpaa«^^ 

inlet is above ; the threaded exterior ^^g. 28. 

is for attaching the steam-pipe from the ^^^"""^ °^ CyXm^^t. 

boiler. The glands and stuffing-boxes, for keeping the piston 

and valve-rod steam-tight, are shown in section. The glands 

are screwed into the castings, parts being bored out to 


receive the packings. It will not be necessary to make 
special reference to the body of the cylinder, the covers, etc.^ 
as the reader will have become acquainted with these in the 
previous chapters. 

By reference to Fig. 28, the passage of the steam may be 
traced. It enters from above, filling the steam-chest, and as the 
valve is shown it could find no outlet. The valve on being 
moved would uncover one port, and allow the steam to enter 
by the steam-way, through the slot filed in the edge. When in 
the cylinder the steam would force the piston towards the 
other end, the action of the eccentric meanwhile pushing the 
valve along and further opening the port. When the piston had 
made half ts stroke the valve would commence to close 
again, and by the time the end was reached the valve would 
be again in the position shown. The momentum of the fly- 
wheel would carry round the eccentric, and with it the valve 
would move so as to open the way to the exhaust, thus allowing 
the steam in the cylinder to escape. Hie other port-hole would 
also be opened to the live steam, which would then exert its 
pressure on the other side of the piston. By the motion of the 
valve the steam is let into the cylinder from each end alternately 
and thus the reciprocating motion of the piston is maintained. 
The slide-valve is shown in Fig. 29, the left is a view of the 
face. The centre is hollowed out as shown at the section in 

the middle, to allow the steam to pass into 
the exhaust. The back is shown at the right ; 
the saw-cut receives the valve-rod, which is 
fhinned down to fit it ' The face of the 
valve, that is, all the outer part of it, is made 
Fig. 29. perfectly flat to fit steam-tight on the valve- 

Shde-Valve. ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ cylinder. Contact is ensured by 

the pressure of the live steam in the steam-chest; this is 
always more than that of the exhaust 


The orank-shafty forming the fly-wheel axle, is shown alone 
half-size at Fig. 30. This is a rod of round steel \ in. in diameter, 
the total length is 3^ in. At the right-hand end it is le- 
duced in size a length of \ in., to receive the fly-wheel and 
the driving-pulley. These are generally screwed on to a 
thread cut on the shaft, but wedging is a more workmanb'ke 
way of securing driving-wheels 

and pulleys. The two journals [lyjll^xl^:^ f i l2'i iwwid 

are to rest in the plummer _ ^ . «, , 

_. '^ , Fig. 30. Crank-Shaft. 

blocks shown at Fig. 31 ; the 

neck at the left-hand end is to receive the crank-arm. 
The collars on the shaft outside of each journal are of the 
widths shown* One of the bearings for the crank-shaft is 
shown at Fig. 31, which shows a side view, an edge view, and 

a view from the top ; in this the dotted lines 
represent the screw-heads. These bearings 
are usually brass castings ; they are fixed on 
to the bed-plate by two screws each, and the 
Fig. 31. cap is also held on by two other screws. 

Ccaak-Bearing. Various designs may be obtained, but the one 
illustmted is as good as any. The thickness of the bearing is 
nearly \ in. The height must be precisely that which will 
bring the centre of the crank-shaft level with the centre of the 

Fig. 3 a is the crank-arm, giving an end and side view. It 
should be made of steel and fixed on the shaft by keying, 
though more often it is screwed on. The thickness 
is shown about -^ ; the shape may be according to 
fancy. The hole at the bottom is for the crank- 
pin, which is riveted in. The *4hrow" of the 
crank is an important point, and it must never ^'®' ^' 
be so much that the piston touches the ends of the 
cylinder. In the present ca^e the '^ throw," that is the dis- 



tance from the centre of the crank-shaft to the centre of the 
crank-pin, is | in. This gives ij-in. stroke; there is plenty of 
space in the cylinder for another ^ in., and possibly the 
nominal stroke, i^ in. could be managed by using a thin 
piston-head. The crank-pin is shown at the top of Fig. 34. 

The guide-block, Fig. 33, serves to guide the piston-rod, 
and steadies it against the influence of the crank. The shape 
is shown by the illustrations. The hole for the piston-rod is 

bored level with the axis of the cylinder and 
the centre of the crank-shaft. The block 
is secured to the bed-plate by two screws, holes 
for which are shown in the top view. 

^ig* 34 shows the crank-pin and five views 
^ '^^'Jl}\ of the ends of the connecting-rod. The 

Guide-Block. . ^ ° 

crank-pin is steel j'^ in. diameter, turned 
down to \ in. at the journal and at the neck, which is 
riveted into the arm, Fig. 32. The head of the rod is fitted 
with a cap, held by two screws, so that it may be placed over 
the crank-pin into the groove. The other end of the rod, 
which is forked, is shown to the right Here a section and 
G^^ an elevation are given ; the round piece, 

RT] i®l ifl "®S eddied the cross-head, which receives the 

-ra- -TBT *^o screws (see section) is bored to fit 
the piston-rod, and it is clamped to this 

Crank-Pin and Connect- ^^ *^^ P^^"*^ ^^ ^^^ S^'^^^S shown. The 

ing-Rod. sides of the fork are bored to fit freely 

over the threads of the screws, so that it may oscillate with 
the motion of the crank. The position of the cross-head on 
the piston is determined when the engine is together ; it is 
placed so that the piston slides midway between the ends of 
the cylinder. 

Fig. 35 shows the eccentric and the eccentric strap. Th^ 
first is a piece of brass ; the large circle has a groove turned 


in it to receive the strap, and the boss is eccentric, as shown 

in the left-hand figure. The amount of eccentricity is ^ in., 

which gives a travel of ^ in. to the 

slide-valve. These eccentrics are 

turned on a mandrel having double 

centres, one pair serving when turn- 

ing the boss, and the other when fig. 35. 

. . . ,- Eccentric and strap. 

tummg the eccentnc itself. A set 

screw tapped through the boss serves to secure it on the 


The strap on the right in Fjg. 35 is cast in the form shown, 
the centre is bored to fit the groove in the eccentric, and the 
strap then cut in halves through the lugs. These lugs serve 
to take screws, which hold the strap together. The projecting 
piece on the right is to receive the eccentric rod, which is 
screwed into the strap at this point. 

This completes the description of the various parts of a 
model horizontal engine. A glance at Figs. 26 and 27 will 
show the relative position of each, and the detail figures 
show the dimensions, which may be measured on the illustra- 

The engine next illustrated is of a much more substantial 
type. The Figs, are reduced from full-size drawings of an 
engine having a cylinder 4-in. bore ^and 5-in. stroke. The 
dimensions given in the text are those of the full-sized engine, 
but a smaller size will make up very nicely if the same pro- 
portions are observed throughout. 

The first illustration. Fig. 36, shows an elevation, and the 
plan immediately below drawn about \ scale. The details 
are shown about twice as large. Referring to Fig. 37, the 
bed-plate, which forms the main casting is 34 in. long and 
7 in. wide at the base. By constructing a scale to suit 
these measurements, the illustrations may be made to serve for 




K model of any size. It is necessaiy to make complete 
Korking drawings of the size intended and, or course, all the 
small parts, such as bolts and screws, would be made to some 
itandaid measurement. When reducing the size of machines, 

the tendency is to somewhat increase the relative dimensions 
of the small parts. Also the necessity, which practically 
exists, of using certain fittings of fixed gauge, compels a 
certain araount of departure from the strict adherence to 
exactly proportionate alterations in size. As an example, refer 
to the bearings of the crank-shaft shown tn the plan. They 




are I ID. diameter in the original engine and, reduced to ^ 
scale, show \ in. diameter. It would be an inconvenient siae 
to adopt, and -^ in. would be at the same time more suited to 
our common methods of measoRinent and also to the re- 
duced sise of the ei^[ine. The bolts which hold together the 
^ide-bars for tan piston-head Eire \ in. diameter, and, though 
shown iV in. diameter in the drawing, should be made \ in. 
in a model of this reduced scale; 

Fid. 41. Eccentric and Smp. 

In iUnstrating the detiuls, only those of somewhat pecular 

constntctioa have been selected. AH details are shown } 


scale. Fig. 38 shows a section of the cylinder, and from it 
all details of slide-valve arrangement can be seen. The com- 
plete piston-rod is shown at Fig. 39; it measures i2|^ in. 
from end to end. The end that is fixed in the piston has a 
collar forged upon it to butt agamst the piston-head, into which 
it is fitted with a cone. The extreme end is threaded for a 
nut, as shown in the section of cylinder. 

The connecting-rod, shown in elevation and in plan at Fig. 
40, is a forging. Brasses are fitted in both ends. The end 
that connects with the cross-head has its brass fixed by a 
taper key, which is itself fixed by a set screw. The crank-pin 
brasses are secured by a cap held on by two bolts, each fixed 
by lock-nuts. The pair of brasses are shaped to fit a some- 
what elliptical hole in the connecting-rod ; by this plan the 
brasses are prevented from turning in the rod. 

The valve-rod is made of round steel, having an eye at 
one end fitted by a knuckle joint to a rod, which is fixed by a 
transverse pin to the eccentric strap. These details are shown 
at Figs. 41 and 42. 

The eccentric itself is made of cast iron and has spaces 
cored out in the large sizes. The elevation and the section 
views, Fig. 42, show these and the method of connecting with 
the valve-rod, sometimes called the vavle-spindle, and so 
marked on the illustration. 



OHE action of oscillating cylinders has been described, 
but before giving the details of an engine of this type 
it may be well to show this form of cylinder. A single-action 
oscillating cylinder is shown at Fig. 43. The action can bo 
understood by reference to the description of the toy engine 
shown at Figs. la and 13. A pair of double-acting oscillating 
cylinders are shown at Fig. 44. These cylinders have their 

Single- Acting OicillBtiiig Cylinder, 
steam ports acting on the face of the block placed between 
them. The live steam acts at both ends of the cylinder and 
drives the piston in both directions. This gives these 
cylinders the distinction of double acting. The small space 
occupied by cylinders of this form makes thera particularly 
suited for confined spaces. Oscillating cylinders are, for this 
reason, mostly used in ships. 

The following set of drawings show an engine with an 
osdllating cylinder. 

This form of construction economises apace and weight ; it 
b also loon simple than alide-ralve cylindent In all okjU*' 


ting engines the cylinder is mounted oa trunnions or gudgeons, 
so that it may swing to and fro through a small arc, and allow 
the piston-rod to follow the motion of the cranlt. No con- 

necting-rod is required in this engine, the piston-rod being 
attached direct to the crank-pin. 

The illustration shows an engine specially adapted for pro- 
pelling a model boat. The entire machine is kept low down, 
which is generally necessary for small boats. The fly-wheel 
is much heavier than are those attached to toyshop engines, 
but it is not imnecessarily large. Experiments show that 
a weighty fly-wheel is required on an engine which has 
the constant drag of a screw propeller to overcome. This 
fact is ignored by some makers of engines, and in some cases 
a useless engine has been made effective by the substitution 
of a much heavier fly-wheel. 

The framework on which the cylinder is mounted, and 
which also generally serves to cany the bearings for the 


driving-shaft, may be of almost any design. There Is no set 
pattern for this purpose, and it rests with the designer to 
fashion his pattern according to fancy. The form shown 
possesses the essential characteristics. It is strong, yet light ; 
there is a good base by which to secure the engine to the hull 
of the boat. Suitable provisions are made for the bearings of 
the crank-shaft, also for the valve-face and the cylinder-trun- 
nion. So long as these are provided for, the mere outline is 
of little importance. 

Boring the cylinder Is often the most difficult job to 
accomplish by a beginner who has not had some experience 
at the lathe. Some methods of doing this have been given, 
but there are several other ways in which it can be done. By 
fixing the cylinder, with a clip and two bolts, to an angle-plate 
on the face-plate of lathe, placing the valve-face upon the 
angle-plate, the cylinder can be firmly secured and at the 
same time easily centred. After being set true it can be bored 
with a tool fixed in the slide-rest, but this method requires the 
slide-rest to be properly adjusted in order to get the bore 
parallel. Cylinders can be bored very w«ll with a flat boring bit 
turned true on the edges, and two pieces of half-round wood 
screwed to it. The bit should be turned parallel and size of 
bore; the two pieces of wood can be removed, and the' bit, 
the end of which is made to cut the same as an ordinary drill, 
hardened and tempered ; the wood must then be replaced. 
Holding this drill with a hooked spanner, and feeding up very 
carefully with back centre of lathe, a good bore can be got. 
The cylinder should then be placed on a perfectly true mandrel, 
and the flanges turned and faced up at one chucking. 

Fig. 45 gives a side elevation, and Fig. 46 an end view of 
the same engine. The cylinder is i-in. bore and i-in. stroke, 
The length without covers is i|^ in., that allows ^in. for thick- 
ness of piston, T^in. for each of the spigots of the two 


covers, and the same distance leii vacant at each end. The 
diameter of the cylinder across the flanges is i^in.i and a 
scmicucular lib b shovn in the middle. Each cover is held on 

Fig. 45. Fig. 46. 

Side View of OscEllaling End View of OscilUtiEig 

Cylinder Eogine. Cylinder Engine. 

by six hexagon-beaded bolts, placed equidistant round it, tapped 
into the flange. These bolls are not shown in the lower cover. 

The piston-rod is shown out from the cylinder to its fullest 
extent The rod is of round steel ^in. diameter. The cross- 
head for the crank-pin is of brass, screwed on to the end of the 
tod. Though shown as a solid piece, it would be better if 
this head was cut across horizontally at the diameter of the 
crank pin, and the cap secured by two screws. 

The piston-rod can be made from a piece of steel rod. It 
must be truly centered, and made quite straight ; one end is 
turned tapering ^in. from the end, and screwed. The other 
end is slightly tapered to fit into cross-head, and a key-way 
cut through it ; a small hole can be drilled, and then made 
to draw the parts together, as sbowQ ^ Fig. 83, with a small 
round file. 


The piston*head is in two parts, and can be made (torn 
sheet brass ; one must have a taper hole bored to fit the rod, 
the other half is made to answer the purpose of a nut. 
Having fitted and turned up the faces, they may be fixed on 
the rod ; the half that is for the nut must have two holes 
drilled in the back so that a forked turnscfew can be used to 
screw up the piston ; it can then be turned on the rod the 
exact size of cylinder bore, and a -^ in. groove turned for pack- 
ing-rings. The rings can be cut from brass tube, and made 
so that the two fit in the groove of piston-head. The rings at 
this stage must be slightly larger than the cylinder bore. A 
slanting cut should be made in each ring; they must then be 
placed in the piston and pressed together until the cuts are 
close up \ the two rings are then fixed by their edges, and may 
then be turned until they will just go in the cylinder. The 
rings must be ground sufficiently narrow so that they will be 
free to expand when the piston plates are screwed together. 

The crank-pin is turned from steel, and is riveted into the 
disc which forms the crank. A crank-arm would do equally 
well, and the disc is shown simply as illustrating a different 
plan. The disc is fixed on the crank-shaft either by screwing, 
by a transverse pin, or by a key. 

The crank-shaft is \\vi. steel, and should be turned smooth 
and parallel to fit the hole in the standard. This hole should also 
be smooth and parallel, which it will be if properly bored with 
a suitable tool. A long bearing has no more friction than a 
short one, though a contrary opinion seems to be prevalent. 
A small hole for supplying the oil necessary for lubrication 
should be made near the middle of this bearing. The same 
remarks apply to the bearing through which the trunnion 

The fly-wheel on the left in Fig. 45 is cast iron, 2\ in. 
\^ dameter, an(i |^in. wide on the rim. The rim should 


be \ in. thick at least, and the boss in the centre as wide 
as the rim. If bored fairly true, the casting need not be 
turned on its edge, though it will look better if bright. A 
small key should be used to fix the fly-wheel on the shaft 
Thislatter, shown broken off in the drawing, projects ^lightly, 
and carries a. small disc with two pins, which engage m a fork 
on the end o£ the propeller-shaft and so drive it, and the 
screw propeller attached to its end. 

The valve-face of the standard must be made perfectly 
flat, and at right angles to the boring for the crank-shaft. 
Fig. 48 shows the face of this standard as it would be seen 
in Fig. 46 if the cylinder were removed. The section oi 
cylinder, shows valve-face and steam-ways. It is convenient 
to turn the valve-face in the lathe, and, at the same time, 
to cut the circular groove, which, after being stopped by 
plugging at both top and bottom, forms the supply and ex- 
haust ports respectively. The face may be made flat by filing 
when a lathe is not available, and the groove cut by means of 
an annular bit with teeth on its edge which cut a channel, 
but do not touch the inner circular part. 

Through the centre of the valve-face a hole is bored to 
receive the cylinder-trunnion. This trunnion is a steel pin, 
illustrated between Figs. 45 and 46, it screws into the valve-face 
of the cylinder. The outer end is threaded for a nut, which 
has a washer beneath it, and keeps the cylinder close against 
the standard, with che faces of the valves held together steam- 
tight, yet so that the cylinder may oscillate freely. A spiral 
spring beneath the nut is sometimes used, but, in good work, the 
adjustment is made with a pair of lock-nuts. The hole through 
the standard must be perfectly at right angles to the face, and 
the trunnion in the cylinder must also be perpendicular to the 
valve-face, or the two faces cannot come together steam-tight. 
The stuffing-box of the piston-rod is made with a gland 

Fig. 47. 

Glands and 


drawn down on the packing by two screws. This arrangef- 
ment is shown in section at Fig. 47. The method of fitting 
the gland, whether by screwing direct into the 
boss of the cylinder cover, as shown on the 
right, or by screws tapped through the flange, 
as on the left-hand, in the illustration, is 
quite optional. By referring to Fig. 47 the 
construction of the two forms of stuffing- 
boxes will be understood. The gland belonging to each is 
shown separate immediately above the sections. The same 
description applies to both. First the cylinder cover with the 
projecting boss into which the gland is fitted ; higher is the 
space for the stuffing or packing. This is filled with lamp 
cotton, and, when the gland is screwed down, the cotton is 
compressed so that it makes a steam-tight fitting for the piston- 
rod to glide in. The hole for the piston-rod is shown through 
the centres of both sections. 

As befoi:e explained, the gland on the left is secured by two 
screws shown in the section ; it is fitted into a plain cylindrical 
hole. The other gland is threaded to screw direct into the 
cylinder cover, which is tapped to receive it. The first method 
is the one always employed in large engines. The screwed 
gland has a knurled edge, so that it may 
be turned with the thumb and finger. 

The action of the valves in a double- 
action oscillating cylinder will be best ex- 
plained by reference to Fig. 48. This shows 
the face of the standard and the section of 
the cylinder. There is a flat face to the 
cylinder, usually circular; this has the 
usual steam-ways bored in it. These holes meet others, 
drilled firom the ends of the cylinder, parallel with its bore, 
and conduct the steam to the ends of the cylinder through the 

Fig. 48. 

Val7€-Face of OseU< 
lating Engine. 


side passages. On the face of the standard are two holes, 
driUed from the back, one to receive the steam from the boiler, 
the other to take the exhaust pipe. These holes are not bored 
through, but communicate with the semi-circular grooves. 
The cylinder is placed against the standard, and held close to 
it, as shown in Fig. 45, by means of the trunnion illustrated 
in the same Fig. 

When the cylinder is vertical, as shown in Fig. 46, the port- 
holes are opposite the solid parts of the valve-face. Suppose 
live steam issues from the boiler and fills one of the semi- 
circular channels ; directly the cylinder is moved on one side, 
and one of the port-holes comes over the groove, the steam 
enters the cylinder, and, pressing against the piston, compels 
the crank to revolve. By the same motion the other port is 
brought over the other semi-circular channel, and the dead 
steam escapes. When the cylinder again reaches a vertical 
position the steam-ports are again closed, but the momentum 
of the fly-wheel carries it over the dead centre, and then the 
positions of the ports are reversed. The one formerly over the 
exhaust now opens to the live steam, and the port just charged 
with steam comes over the exhaust Thus the steam is ad 
mitted alternately at both sides of the piston, and so t^ie 
engine continues to work. 



I HE engine shown in this chapter is one that has worked 
well and may be depended upon. The large drawings 
are reduced to ^ scale, and all details are shown \ scale, of the 
original engine. 

The base on which the engine is built is of cast iron. It is 
lain, wide and the side strips are 9 in. long. It is |in. 

> © 



> © 





© © 





^ . < 






Pig. 49. 
Plan View of Launch Engine, 

thick with a hole in the centre; see plan view, Fig. 49. 
The cross-pieces which support the bearings for crank-shaft 



are strengthened by webs underneath. The top of this base has 
"chipping-pieces" projecting where the standards rest. These 

Fig. 50.— Front View of Launch Engine. 

should be faced off level in a planing machine. The chipping- 
pieces of course save a great deal of work when chipping and 



filing is the process by which the base is prepared to receive 
the parts to be bolted to it. 

The six hexa- 
gon nuts shown 
in the plan view, 
and not in the 
other drawings, are 
to fix the engine 
to its place in the 

Next is Fig. 50, 
a front view; Fig. 
51 is a side view. 
From these the 
general design of 
this engine may be 
Seen, and the prin- 
cipal dimensions 
taken. The de- 
sign is one that 
will make up very 
satisfactorily on a 
reduced scale. 
Some of the de- 
tails may be regu- 
lated in a model %- 
under half size, 
and, when reduc- 
ing, some atten- 
tion must be paid 
to dimensions of 

Fig. 51. Side View of Launch Engine. 

the smaller parts, which must be slightly larger than precise 
proportion would give. The engine is 2^-m. bore and 2^in, 



Stroke. It has reversing gear to make it practically useful; 
though the double eccentrics and link motion give a good deal 
of extra work, and they may be left out of a smaller model 
The pump shown on the illustrations is also quite an auxiliary 
and may be dispensed with. It is fully described in Chap. IX. 

The standards are cast together, the top forming the cylinder 
cover. It may be questioned whether this plan is to be pre- 
ferred to casting each standard separate. Probably this will 
depend entirely on the appliances that are available for finish- 
ing the castings. This engine can have the insides of the stand- 
ards, which form the guides for the piston cross-head, Wished 
on a 6-in. centre lathe, if it is strong enough for such work. 

The method of finishing the insides of these standards is 
this: First carefully prepare the feet so that the pair of 
standards rest fairly and stand quite upright. The holes for 
the holding-down bolts can then be bored, one near the comer 
of each foot. The casting is next mounted on a face-plate 
and fixed quite upright and with the end disc, which will form 
the cylinder cover, running true. If chucked carefully and 
fiimly, the disc can be centred and a hole bored through — this 
will afford a bearing for the back poppet-head centre. The 
disc, which is to form the cylinder cover, can now be roughly 
turned nearly to size and shape. 

The hole in the centre of the cover can be bored out 
much larger than the piston-rod requires and can be finished 
afterwards. By this plan a boring bar can be used through 
this hole, and with its other end on the mandrel-cone centre 
point, which would be projecting in the centre of the face- 
plate A cutter-block and cutter, arranged to bore the inner 
faces of the standards to about 2\ in. diameter will finish the 
guides for the cross-head. Sections of the standards are shown 
at Figs. 52 and 53. It is advisable to get the cylinder fitted on 
the bottom cover, and to turn the lower flange and cover 


together, so as to ensure a perfect agreement of their surfaces. 
This can be done by boring the cylinder and tumii^ the 
Range-face for the lower end at least, before the standards are 
mounted in the lathe ; eo as to have it prepared for fitting on 
and fudng when the boring bar is in use. 

In Figs. 52 and 53 we have sectional views of the upper part 
of standards. One view 
vertical and one hori- 
zontal The upper ver- 
tical view shows how 
the cylinder fits the top 
of the standards, also 
the stufling-box for 
piston. Near the bot- 
tom are shown cross 
slots which are the 
ends of the cross-head 

guides. In die lower <■ 

horizontal section may . 
be seen the sectional t 
form of the standards, i 
also the plan form of 
cross-head. The oil 
clumbers are shown. 

The pair of stan- 
dards may be cast apart and have ears at their tops to attach 
them to the cover of cylinder. In this case the guide-&ces 
may be got np with a file, but only in a way far inferior to the 
method previously described. When there is no chance of 
using a lathe, this inferior method must be adopted. 

It is unnecessary to say much in connection with these 
drawings of the complete engine. The various parts are all 
deariy shown in position. Each one of special importance is 


illustrated on an enlarged scale later on in this chapter. Man^ 
df the special features of construction have been discussed is 
previous chapters. There are points of similarity in tliis and 
the horizontal 
engine descri- 
bed in Chaj^er 
VI I. The sec- 
tion. Fig. 54, 
thiough the 
side elevation 
affords a means 
of comparing 
many measure- 

The cross, 
head is formed 
solid with the 
piston, and a 
vertical section 
is shown at Fig. 
55, where the 
oil chambers 
are seen, and 
also themethod 
of securing the 
cover which is 
a plate fixed by 
the knurled- 
headed screw. 

The connect- 
ing-rod is 
riG. 54. Sectional View of Launch Eogina. , _. 

^ Known at Fig. 

36, which gives three views and needs no ex^ilanatioa. The 





Fig. 55. 
Section of Cross-head. 


rod is rectangular in section and has a T-piece forged at one 
end The other end has an eye, which is jointed to the cross- 
head. The 
brasses in this 
rod are fitted 
as shown. 
They have the 
bolts passed 
right through 
them, and 
these should 
fit. ^ strap at the outer end and 
the T-piece on the rod serve to 
hold the two bolts together. Lock- 
nuts are required to guard against 
these bolts becoming loosened in 

. The eccentric and its belongings 
are shown at Fig. 57. A plan and 
side view of the eccentric are given. 
The eccentric is \ in. thick, it has 
a screw tapped through the wiriest 
part of it. The throw of each, ec- 
centric is -^ in., giving a travel of 
f iir. to the slide-valve. The pump 
eccentric is made precisely as illus- 
trates, but has -j^-in. throw, so as 
to give the purap-plunger a travel 
of f in. 

The straps for valve eccentric and also for pump eccentric 
are of the form ijli^str^-t^d at Fig. 57. It will be noticed that 

Fig. 56. Connecting Rod. 


each is intended to be fixed to a T-piece connection on toe 
eccentric rod. The two screwed studs are for this purpose, 
and a glance at the eccentric rod, shown at Fig. 58, will show 

1 P 


:. ^B. Eccentric Bodi. 

Fig. 57. Eccentric and Strap. 

the method of application. A 
tecess is cast in the strap to 
contain oil for lubrication. It 
has a small cover fitted, to pre- 
vent the contents from being thrown out. 

The eccentric rods to work the link for valve gear are shown 
at Fig. 58. They are both alike sideways, but one is straight 
and the other bent, as shown in the two edge views. Each 
rod is T-shaped at one end and forked at the other, to connect 
with the eccentric strap and with the link respectively- Tb; 


pump eccentric rod and all the pump construction will be 
found described in Chapter IX. 

Reversing the motion of this engine is managed with a 
link. Slide-valves when fitted with the link motion, work 
satisfactorily. With the aid of this contrivance, engines can 
be reversed by simply moving the reversing lever. Steam can 
be worked with almost any amount of expansion, the change 
being rapidly made by a small movement of the lever. By 
altering the amount of expansion, the greatly-varying power 
required in some kinds of engines can be obtained. Not only 
reversed motion but the varymg speed required for boats, and 
the var3dng power required for locomotives, can be readily 
obtained by simply shifting the lever to the required position. 

The motion illustrated at Fig. 59 is that usually ananged with 
the slot-link shifting. 
The concave part is 
then towards the 
crank axle. Each end 
of the link is worked 
by a separate eccen- 
tric, the radius of the 
curved slot being equal to the effective length of eccentric 
rods. The slide-valve rod is connected with a block which 
moves in the slotted link. The slide-valve is worked by either 
of the eccentrics, as wished, by merely shifting the link by 

Fig. 59. Link and Die : side and edge views. 



O a.-_-.-.": 



T T 

i I 
I • 


Fig.. 60. Valve-rod and Cross-head. 

moving the reversing lever, to which it is connected by means 


of links and levers. 
Tl^e sUd^-valve rod and cros§-h^^^ apre shpw^ at Fig. 60. 


The valve-rod has a cross-head to take the die which travels in 
the link, Fig. 59. This is slotted to a radius of 9 in. A forging 
is generally used for a full-size link, but smaller sizes may be cut 
from a piece of bar metal, mild steel being good material to 
use. The small hole shown in the end of valve-rod is drilled 
to a depth of about i in., and met by a hole drilled in side- 
ways to allow the free passs^e of air or steam between the 
valve-box and the recess into which the end of the valve-rod 
works. Without this hole a vacuum might be formed. The 
two other holes are to take screws put through the slide-valve 
to fix it to the valve-rod. The method of doing this is shown 
at Fig. 65. Views of both ends of the valve-rod are given at 
Fig. 60. 

The quadrant-plate, which holds the reversing lever, is 
shown at Fig. 61. It is bolted with lugs cast on the cylinder* 

I— I 



Fig. 62. 
Clamping Bolt for Quadrant. 

(0) «zz@ 

Fig. 6z. Quadrant Plate— 
Side and Edge Views. 

Fig. 63. Bolt for 
Link Motion 

The bolt, used for securing the reversing lever, and its washer 
are shown at Fig. 62. The pins of the reversing motion are 
also shown at Figs. 63 and 64 — where their dimensions can be 
measured. A reference to Figs. 50, 51, and 54 will show 
the position of each pin or screw. 

The valve-face is shown at Fig. 65, and the slide-valve also. 
The ports are very wide, so as to get quick action in opening 

»■■■ 1- > i^^»4 

Fig. 64. 

Pin in Link, for Coupling! 
of Reversing Lever. 


and closing. Each port is i| in. long and -^ wide. The 
exhaust being double that width. The method of securing the 
slide-valve to its rod is shown here j it 
has been explained in a previous para- 
graph. A piec(j of copper wire se- 
cures the screws from loosening. The 
steam inlet is arranged in this engine 
by bolting a union on to the steam- 
chest This union is shown at Fig. 66. 
The brasses for crank-shaft are shown 
at Fig. 67, a top view, side view, and 
bottom view being given. The latter 
shows a wide channel cut for free 
lubrication. This is a very important 
point in an engine, and more especially 
when run at a quick speed. The caps 
which fit on the plummer-blocks are 
provided with large receptacles for oil. 
These are made in the castings, as 
shown at Fig. (i%. A piece of brass 
tube is fitted in each oil box, and a wick of lamp cotton 
used to conduct the oil to the bearing. A cover is fitted to 
each receptacle. 

Fig. 65. 
Valve and Valve- Face. 







Fig. 66. 

Union for Steam 

Fig. 67. 
Brasses for Crank-Shaft. 

The cylinder grease cup is shown io section at Fig. 69. 



/ If 1 \ . 

• II 

1 ^LJI P 




The construction of this grease cup can be seen by reference 
to the several illustrations where it is shown attached to the 
engine cylinder. Figs. 50 and 51 show the grease cup in 
elevation, the first shows the cock plug across the illustration, 
the second at right angles to the former position. In Fig. 54 
is shown the section of the grease cup in the same position as 
in Fig. 51 ; and in Fig. 69 the section is shown as in Fig. 50. 
Very small grease cups and cocks of all kinds are best made 
from solid rolled metal — castings are likely to be defective 
and are always liable to breakage when reduced to finished 
A detailed description of the process of making this grease 

cup will be interesting, 
and much of the in- 
formation is applicable 
to other fittings for 
model engines. The 
finished grease cup is Fig. 69. 
2 in. long and x\ in. ^^^x 
diameter; a piece of Lu*)ri- 
metal large enough to 
finish to these sizes is therefore requisite. The first 
operation is to bore a hole \ in. diameter through the 
centre. A twist drill will run through easily and will leave 
two holes sufficiently straight and smooth for all requirements. 
Each end should now be carefully steam-fired so that the piece 
can be run on the lathe centres without any fear of its going 
out of true in wear. The threaded part at one end has to be 
turned down to -^ in. diameter, and f in. long, and whilst this 
is being done the bulk of the metal may be turned off to the 
shape shown in the drawings. 

The threaded part, screwed into a true hole in some chuck, 
will. form the b^st rneans pf chucking the piece to completely 

Fig. 68. Cap for Brasses — 
Elevation and Plan Views. 


finish it. Turn away the end, which forms the top, to get it 
the correct distance from the shoulder, which is if in. — then 
enlarge the \ in. hole to \ in. diameter for a depth of ^ in. ; 
now turn away the interior to form the space for grease — this 
is done with bent tools. The sectional drawings show this 
space very evenly made, but, if a metal lubricator were cut in 
halves to show the section, it is very probable that the work- 
manship of the turner would not compare advantageously 
with those of the draughtsman, so far as the interior con- 
struction is concerned. The \ in. hole can now be tapped 
with a -^ in. thread to take the knurled nut which forms the 
cover. This nut is best turned from a piece of stick metal ; 
the thread having been cut on the screwed part, the nut 
should be knurled and then cut of. It may be finished in its 

The hole for the plug is just |in, from the shoulder; it 
must cross the ^in. hole exactly midway, and should be a 
\ in. diameter. It is advisable to make a much smaller hole 
first and to bore it from both sides, first filing two flats pre- 
cisely opposite and centre-punch these to start the drill fairly. 
If these holes do not exactly middle, a small round file can be 
used to draw the hole over as required. The hole is finally 
tapered slightly, the largest end being about -f^ in. diameter : 
an ordinary taper broach will do for this purpose. 

The plug is turned in one piece with its handle. To make 
it, a piece 2^ in. long and f in. diameter is wanted. This is 
turned to the shape shown, and the tapering part is ground to 
fit the hole at an early stage. The small end is screwed with 
a -j^^in. thread, and behind that is a square for the washer; 
The handle is bent at right angles to the plug when all is 
finished. Don't try to bend brass when hot, but anneal and 
cool before bending. The hole in the plug is made by drill- 
ing up the \-\xu hole ; the rough edges are best removed from 


Double Cylinder Lftunch Enginq. 


the plug by slightly chamfering. The grease cup is thus 

The pump for this engine is fully illustrated and described 
in Chap, IX. — See Figs. 93, 94, 95 and 96, page 104. 

On the opposite page is shown, Fig. 70, a double cylinder 
launch engine fitted with reversing motion. The illustration, 
taken from a photograph of one of Messrs. Lucas and Davies' 
engines, is sufficiently clear to show details of construction. 
Sets of castings for three sizes, viz., ^-in., f-in. and i-in. bore 
of cylinder may be had. The design shows two single cylinder 
engines built on one bed-plate, and acting on one crank-shaft. 
If the bed-plate, crank-shaft, and the plate forming the cylindei 
covers were all divided vertically down the centre of the illus- 
tration, two independent engines would be the result 



HE following pages are devoted to the minute descrip- 
tion of a small steam engine that can exert a con- 
siderable amount of power in proportion to its size and not 
knock itself to pieces, as many low-priced and flimsily-built 
engines do. The design is one which has been found to fully 
satisfy exacting requirements. The plan and elevation oi 
engine can be used to measure from by taking a suitable 
scale. The illustrations are printed \ scale of the dimensions 
given in the text. The details are shown on a larger scale. This 
engine, of the dimensions given in the text, is worked at a 
mean pressure in the cylinder of about 45 lb. of steam per 
square inch, and, being run at 1,000 revolutions per minute, 
gives over \ h.p., the power resulting principally from the 
high speed. Many doubt the possibility of running the 
engine so quickly, though such engines very often run at much 
higher speeds. An advantage of high speed is the superior 
controlling power of the fly-wheel. The regular working of 
the engine increases as the square of the speed — that is, a fly- 
wheel running at 1,000 revolutions per minute has four times 
the controlling power that it would have if running at 500 
revolutions. Another advantage of high speed is, that it 
often enables the engine to over-run the resistance, and this, 
especially in the case of very small engines, is of great 
benefit in ensuring regularity of speeds. 

A reference to the plan and elevation of the complete 
engine, shown at Figs. 71 and 72, afibrds an idea of the 


design/ The engine is built upon a cast iron oblong base 
having semicircular ends made hollow, and serving as a water 
tank. The bottom is covered by a plate of sheet iron cut to 
shape and fixed by a dozen screws tapped into the casting. 

A sheet of metal, ^ in. thick, and cut to fit inside of the bed- 
plate, is required to form a cover for this tank. It rests on a 
ledge of the casting, as shown by dotted lines in elevation and 
plan of engine. It is held down by screws, and has a man- 
hole at the fly-wheel end to admit a supply of water. The 
sheet metal will require to be slightly dished just under the 
crank-pin, so as to allow the connectmg-rod end to pass. The 
tank part of bed can be cast best without a bottom and have 
a plate screwed on, as shown, but it may be cast in one piece 
with the bottom. The Fig. illustrating the elevation should 
be examined, so as to get an idea of the shape of the casting. 

The bed-plate, formed by making the top rim of the tank 
sufficiently massive, can be proceeded with first when the 
construction of this engine is undertaken. The seatings for 
the lugs of the cylinder must be filed or planed out perfectly 
square on the bed, so that the cylinder will fit tightly into 
them. The seatings for supports of the guide-bar are 
each i^ in. long, the distance apart of the inner sides 
being 2^ in. The distance firom the centre of guide-bars to 
the centre of cylinder is 5^ in. bare. The pluinmer-block 
seating is 3:^ in. long, and from its centre to the centre of 
cylinder is lo^J^in. full. The guide-bars are 3ff in. long from 
centre to centre of holes for studs, the width of bars being 
•^ in. ; they are rounded at ends. The distance-pieces be- 
tween the bars are tubular pieces of metal, they are ^ in. 
diameter, and \ in. long, the holes through them and through 
the bars being ^^ in, full diameter. The distance from centre 
to centre of the two sets of guide-bars is 3 in. It will be 
much easier to file up the edges of the cast iron guide bars if 









:l: o 






the holes are first drDled through the ends, the distance-pieces 
then put in their places, and a couple of bolts put through to 
hold them together, as the two bars, being half an inch apart, 
will offer a better support to the file than the narrow edge of 
one would do. The rubbing faces of guide-bars are, of course, 
filed up as true as possible before the block is ground in. The 
supports for the guide-bars are ^ in. high, and rounded to the 
same shape as the bar ends. The studs for holding down the 
guide-bars are tapped into this support, which also has a ^in. 
hole for holding it down by a bolt shown in the drawing. The 
thin part of support, which forms its foot, is ^V i^' thick, and 
the same width as guide-bars, viz., -^ in. The bars have the 
edge of rib on top polished, the remainder being painted. 
Each of the top bars has a ^in. hole tapped in the centre of 
boss, to receive an oil-cup, as shown on drawing. 

The plummer-blocks, shown at Fig. 73, are iron, and have 

their bases filed up, so 
as to fit tightly in their 
places between the 
lugs cast on the bed, 
the edges of base being 
left bright, all the rest 
of the blocks and also 
the caps being painted, 
excepting the tops of 
circular bosses on 
which the nuts rest, 
which are bright. The 
plummer-blocks are 
if in. high from bed, 
exclusive of cap, and are filed or planed out to a width of 
I in. to take " brasses," the bottom being rounded to fit the 
bearings, so as to bring their centres i in. from bed. The 

Fig. 73. — Plummer-Block. 


bearings, which are of gun-metal, are bored out. fin. diameter, 
and turned |in. on outside ; the flanges at ends are i-^in. di- 
ameter. The length of each bearing is ^Jin., and |in. between 
flanges, where they fit in plummer-blocks. The outer edges 
of flanges can either be rounded or chamfered. The bearings 
can be bored and turned in the way described for the cylinder 
without putting them on a mandrel, which might injure the 
boring. They are then to be fitted in the plummer-blocks; 
and, after making sure that the centre of the hole is just i in. 
above the bed, the plummer-block cap is fitted on to its place 
over the turned gun-metal bearing, the under-side of the cap 
and top of plummer-block being left barely \ in. apart. The 
studs for holding down the plummer-block and also the cap 
are ^ in. diameter, and placed as shown in the plan view, 

Fig. 73- 

A hole J in. diameter is drilled through centre of cap and lop 
of bush for oiling the bearing of crank-shaft ; this hole is ^ in. 
diameter through the bush and bottom of cap, the top being 
tapped with a ^ in. thread for oil-cup, which is illustrated at 
Fig. 74. A small pin is put through the bottom 
bush into plummer-l)lock tb prevent bush from 

We can next commence operations on the 
cylinder, which is made of gun-metal in this 
case, though cast-iron is as good, and proceed F^°- 74. 
in the following way : with a coarse file burr up * " "^ 

one end of the cylinder, so as to get it square with the flanges, 
fix it with ordinary soft solder on the face of a perfectly true 
brass chuck* Turn the outer end of the cylinder true, the 
flange being jV^ thick, then reverse and resolder on the 
chuck, the flanges being got to run as true as possible. By 
soldering the cylinder on the chuck it is held much more firmly 
than by the ordinary ways of chucking, and also it can be 


bored, and flanges and both lugs turned at one chucking, thus 
getting all quite true with the bore, which is difficult to do if 
the cylinder has to be chucked several times. The cylinder 
is then bored out to i| in. diameter. The bore must b^ per- 
fectly parallel throughout, as upon this the satisfactory work- 
ing of the engine greatly depends. The flanges are made 
2^^ in. diameter, the length of cylinder over flanges is 2|fin. 
Both sides of the lugs for holding down the cylinder can be 
turned at the same time. If the seats in the bed-plate are 
made square with the bed, the axis of cylinder will be parallel 
with the bed. The outsides of lugs are 2^ in. apart, the 
width of each being -^ in., and the thickness ^ in. The 
centre of cylinder bore must be i in. from under side of lugs, 
to correspond with centre of bearings in the plummer-blocks. 

A few grooves should be turned in the face of each flange 
to hold the red lead used for packing the joints. 

We can now commence the crank-shaft, for which a wrought 
iron forging will have to be obtained, about i-in. larger in 
every way than the finished size, which is as follows :— 
Total length, 8^ in. : diameter of shaft, |-in. ; diameter of 
journals, | in. ; distance apart, centre to centre, 33^ in. ; 
length of each journal, -J^ in. ; throw of crank, which is 
measured from centre of crank-pin to centre of shaft, i in. ; 
diameter of crank-pin, f in ; length, f in. ; outside width of 
crank, i^ in. ; the width of each throw thus being -J^ in,, and 
its thickness is \\ in. ; the crank is midway between the 
journals, but it is f in. from the middle of the crank-shaft. 
The crank is usually forged solid, and the crank-pin cut out 
afterwards ; this is a much sounder job than if the crank-pin 
and slot were worked out in the forging. The bent cranks, as 
illustrated on page 78, are, however, even better. 

Cranks may be made in several forms, as illustrated in the 
engines shown at Figs. 12, 26, 45, &c. &c. The block crank, 


made by weldmg a piece of bar iron on to a rod and then 
cutting away the metal to form the throw, is most common. 
This form is not good for strength, and recently large 
cranks have been generally made by bending from the rod of 
iron or steel. On page. 78 are shown several cranks, as bent 
by the Grantham Crank Company, and some of the model 
makers supply small cranks made in a similar way. Powerful 
hydraulic presses are used to bend the large cranks, and the 
ends are forced inwards as the throws are formed. Thus the 
continuity of the fibre and the uniformity of section at the 
bends is not injured, and the work is done with less heats. 

When the space between the bearings is limited, that part of 
the rod forming the crank throws, is made elliptical in section. 
This adds strength where needed and decreases the space 
necessary between the bearings. Fig. 76 shows the crank 
made with the throws of elliptical section. Fig. 75 is an 
ordinary-shaped crank, which has collars on the shaft to 
make the shoulders of the bearings. By this method the 
crank-shaft is not weakened by reducing in diameter to form 
the bearings. Fig. 77 shows a three-throw crank, and Fig. 78 
the end view of same. The three throws are equal, and this 
crank is suited for such an engine as a triple cylinder, after the 
style of the one illustrated at Fig. 70. 

All the cranks shown on page 78 are bent from the plain 
rolled rod of steel or iron by special hydraulic machinery, 
and by this process the fibre of the material is not fractured, 
but continued round the throw of the crank, and the arms are 
. found to be as strong as the shaft. In making an ordinary 
block crank, the material is greatly deteriorated by the number 
of heats required, and the fibre running across the web is 
destroyed by cutting out the throw. The cost is much in 
favour of a bent crank, as that of a finished block crank often 
exceeds double that of a bent crank of equal strength- .A 


practice is becoming general now to make vertical, hort 
zontal and other types of et^ines with outside beaiings, so 



dispensing with the disc and substituting a bent crank. In 
launch engines, pumps, &c., the block crank is still laigely 
used ; for the reason, no doubt, that the distances between the 
bearings are short. These cases are met in bent cranks by 
making the arms of the throw of oval section* 

For turning the crank-pin of an ordinary forged crank, 
always have a throw-piece on each end forged to correspond 
to the throws of the crank. These arms are centred, and 
have small holes drilled in them corresponding to the centre 
of crank-pin, and thus serve to carry the shaft between the 
lathe centres while the pin is being turned, after which these 
arms can be cut off and the ends of shaft turned. It is best to 
turn the shaft and outsides of the crank webs first ; the in< 
sides and the pin can be turned after. It is important that 
the crank-pin should be quite parallel with the shaft, in order 
that the connecting-rod does not bind when it is bolted up 

To mark off the centres for turning the crank-pin, proceed as 
follows : — Lay the shafl on a flat surface, with the crank-throw 
horizontal, and scribe a line level with centre of the crank-pin 
along each of the arms on end of shaft ; these lines will be 
parallel yi\\h the surface on which the shaft lies; set off i in. 
with dividers, ^nd place one leg in the shaft centres, and 
scribe a line cutting across those previously made. If this 
be carefully done at each end of the shaft, the point of inter- 
section of each two lines will represent the true centre of the 
crank-pin, and a small hole can be drilled in each point to 
take the lathe centres, so as to turn the pin. It will be noticed 
that the shaft and crank-pin are finished up to the crank-throws 
with a circular curve ; the journals must also be finished in 
the same way, as the shaft is much stronger and less likely to 
break than if finished up square. The sides of the crank- 
throws can b$ turned ; the outer sides at the time the shaft is 


turned, the inner when the pin is turned. The edges of the 
throw can be filed or planed, as most convenient. 

The ends of the crank-shaft which project outside the 
journals may be turned just a trifle taper, as the fly-wheel| 
eccentric, and belt-drum can then be fitted with less trouble, 
though it will be as well to also put a key in each. The key- 
ways in the crank-shaft may be \ in. wide and -j^ in. deep, and 
extend from the ends to within ^in. of the journals. To 
make a perfect fit of the shaft in its bearings, it will be as well 
to slightly grind it in. To do this, the bearings must be 
firmly fixed in their places, and the shall put in them with 
a little silver sand, or what is better, powdered pumice-stone 
and oil, the longest end of shaft being to the left side of bed- 
plate, as shown by the illustrations. The top halves of the 
brasses and the caps are put on, and the shaft turned round 
pretty quickly, the caps being pressed down as the brasses 
wear, until it is found on inspection that the shaft bears 
equally all over the bearings, when both shaft and brasses 
must be thoroughly cleaned from all grit. 

The fly-wheel, which is of iron, is 9 in. diameter and i in. 
wide on rim, and should weigh about 9 lb., a lighter wheel 
not being suflicient to carry the engine steadily over the 
centres. Being too large to turn on a mandrel easily, it may 
be clamped on a face-plate, and, after turning both sides and 
the edge, the hole for the crank-shaft must be carefully bored 
to fin. diameter, and very slightly tapering to fit tightly 
on the shaft. A key-way must be made \ in. wide and ^ in. 
deep, to correspond to that in shaft, and for which a steel key 
will be required with a head on large end. This should be 
\ in. thicker than rest of key, and \ in. long. This head 
is for the purpose of extracting the key from its place in 
wheel. The belt-drum is 3^ in. diameter, and i in. broad on 
face, and slightly rounded, as shown in illustrations, so as to 


prevent the belt slipping off. This wheel can be ixed on a 
foce-plate, or in a boxwood chuck, and bored out the same as 
fly-wheel, after which it can be driven on a mandrel and the 
rim turned. A key-way is also required the same as in the 
fly-wheel. The mandrel on which the wheel is turned ought 
to be very short, and the wheel fixed on it as near the back 
centre as it can be, to prevent the chattering that is inevitable 
on turning heavy things on long mandrels. 

The smaller work belonging to this engine will be dealt with 
in the next chapter 




OHE heavy work of this engine having been disposed of 
in the last chapter, the smaller parts can now be 
proceeded with. A transverse section of the complete cylinder 
is shown at Fig. 79. 

Fig. 79.— Transverge Section of Cjlinder. 
To turn the top cylinder cover, it will be best to ehuck it by 
the stuffing-box, and turn the back, making the spigot project 
barely 1^ in., and fitting it very tightly into the cylinder. Two 
or three grooves must also he turned on the face of the cover 
to help hold the red lead with which the joint is made. A 
^in. hole is drilled right through centre of this cover, for tha 


piston-rod. The cylinder bottom is turned in the same way, 
and a ^in. hole drilled through its centre. The bottom and 
the cover are then fixed on the cylinder, each by eight studs 
\ in. diameter, and the complete cylinder chucked between 
centres in the lathe. The flanges of both covers can then- be 
turned the same size as those of the cylinder. This makes a 
true joint, not always the case if each flange and cover were 
turned separately. The covers are the same thickness as the 
flanges of cylinder, and are slightly hollowed on their outer 
faces, as shown on drawings, Figs. 80 and 81. The stufling- 
box on cover of the cylinder is \ in. diameter^ the flange being 
i^rin. diameter and ^in. thick. To take the gland, the 
Stufiihg-box is bored out ^V in. full diameter, and to within 
^ in. of the inside face, the bottom of the hole being chaui- 

F:g. Bo.— LoDgitndinal Section ot Cylinder. 
fered or rounded, to cause the packing to press against piston- 
rod llie glaid is ^ in. diameter, | in. long, the flange being 


the same diameter and thickness as that of the stufiing-box. 
The hole through the gland for piston-rod is ^ in. full 
diameter, and is chamfered or rounded out at end for packing. 
The glands of stuffing-boxes have studs ^in. diameter. 

The next thing is to true up the valve-face on the cylinder. 
This must be quite square with the feet or lugs, and pro* 
ject ^ in. beyond the flanges of the cylinder. The length of 
valve-face is 2-^ in., and its width 1^ in. AU the ports in the 
cylinder are i|in. long, the steam ports are -^ in. broad, and 
the exhaust port | in. broad, and the distance between the 
neighbouring ports \ in. In making these steam ports, it vill 
be easiest to drill several holes close together, and to chip 
away the intervening metal to make the ports to required 
size. To make the steam passages in cylinder, several holes, 
as large as the casting allows, are drilled up from the ends to 
meet those in valve-face. The ends of cylinder are filed away 
on the side next the bore to a depth of -^ in., and the same 
width as steam port, thus leaving a good passage for steam 
into cylinder when the covers are on. The spigots of the 

Fig 81.— SMtiontbronBhSlide-TalTes. 

cylinder-covers are also chipped away the same width as Ae 

ports, and -^ in. from the edge, to prevent them blocking the 

port when they are on the cylinder. 

The Blide-valve is fiitly iUuRtcated 4t Fig. 81, It ii | itk 


long across the face, and i^ in. broad on the outside. The 
exhaust cavity is \ in. long, ^ in. wide, and -^ in. deep. On 
the back of the valve a projection is cast; through which the 
valve-rod passes, and this is secured in its place by two collars 
and set screws. It is always desirable that the steam should 
enter the cylinder as quickly as possible at the commencement 
of the stroke, and the ports ought to be long, more particularly 
when the engine is intended to run at a very high speed. 
When this engine is required to run at 1,000 revolutions per 
minute, which it can easily do when working, the cylinder has 
to be filled with steam a,ooo times, and emptied as often, in 
the course of one minute; the steam and exhaust ports 
necessarily must be of ample capacity. Not only must they 
be large enough, but properly designed, in order that the 
valve opens a large enough area of the port at once to ensure 
a quick supply of steam to keep the piston moving at the 
required speed. The exhaust also should be sudden and 
ample, otherwise there will be a considerable loss of power 
from back pressure. How to set the slide-valve and the lap, 
lead, and compression are explained in the directions for 
putting the engine together. 

Failing a planing machine, the easiest way of facing up the 
slide-valve box is to solder it on a chuck and turn one face, 
then reverse it and turn the other, at the same time making it 
the right thickness, viz., -Ij-in. The box must then be put on 
its face on a surface-plate, and the centres of the stuffing- 
boxes carefully marked with a scribing block, and a hole 
^ in. diameter bored through each, care being taken to have 
the two holes in a straight line. The cover, if filed flat, can 
be temporarily soldered to the valve-box, so that its edges can 
be turned at the same time as those of box. The ribs 
and edges are got up bright with a ile, the spaces between 
|:i))s wiU b$ pointed the same as tne f9Hgh parts of valvft 



box. The box can be put between centres in the lathed 
and the flanges of stuffing-boxes turned to |^in. diameter, and 
•i^in. thick. The end flanges of the box can be tiurned at the 
same time, the length of box over flanges being same as the 
valve-face. The slide-valve box must again be put on the 
surface-plate, so that the centre of the flange for throttle-valve 
and the piece cast on under side of box can be both marked 
from face and ends of box. The top and bottom flanges may 
then be turned to size, the flange for throttle-valve being |^ in. 
diameter, and -^in. thick. A smooth flle passed oyer flanges 
will lay a straight grain. This way of making the valve box 
will be found much easier than filing it to shape, and also 
makes a much better job, as the work should be left perfectly 

The recesses in stuffing-boxes for glands are \^ in* diameter, 
and reach within ^in. of the inside of the box. The glands 
are ^ in. each long, and fit the recess ; the flanges being same 
diameter and thickness as those of stuffing-boxes. The 
flanges of glands and stuffing-boxes are then filed on two 
opposite sides, so as to make them elliptical, ^in. across^ 
The holes through the glands for valve-rod are ^ in. diameter 
to fit the valve, which is a piece of tVi°« bright steel wire. 
The studs for nuts in valve-box and glands are ^ in. diameter, 
and are placed as shown on drawings. The inside of box 
must be filed out to |^ in. wide, so as to allow the valve to 
work freely. The valve-rod having bearings at both ends of 
box causes the valve to work much better, and also helps to 
prevent leakage at the stuffing-box. The piston-rod does not 
require to be carried through both covers, as the cross-head 
and guides prevent any tilting action that would wear the hole 
in the gland oval, and thus cause leakage. 

For the piston rings it will be best to obtain two steel forg- 
ings large enough to turn into rings i^ in. diameter and \ in* 


square in section. They can be easily turned by soldering them 
on a chuck and turning one side, then reversing and turning 
the other side till each ring is in. thick. The two can then be 
soldered together and on the chuck, and the insides bored out 
to 1} in. dianieter, the outsides being made about y^^ in. too 
large to go into the cylinder. The edges of rings must be 
carefully polished to prevent them scratching the cylinder, and 
a piece cut out of each, about -^ in. long, to allow them to be 
sprung into the cylinder, all burr being removed from the 
edges of cut. They are then ground into their place on 
piston, to insure a steam-tight joint, the rings being left just 
free enough to spring open, when the back disc of the piston- 
head is screwed up tight The cuts in the rings are placed 
on opposite sides of piston, so that the steam which passes 
one cut is stopped by the other ring. 

The exhaust-port is carried through to under-side of cylinder, 
where it is connected to exhaust-pipe by a short length of 
|-in. copper tubing, with flanges on each end, and bent, as 
shown in transverse section of cylinder, see Fig. 79. To 
bend the tube, fill with lead, when it can be easily beQt to 
the required curve, after which the lead can be melted out 
The flange on end of pipe next to cylinder is elliptical, its 
greate$»t diameter being \ in., and its least | in., the greatest 
diameter being parallel with cylinder. The pipe is fastened to 
cylinder by two ^-in. studs and nuts, which pass through wide 
part of flange. The flanges can be made separately, and either 
brazed or silver-soldered on ends of tube, the one on cylinder 
end being set back ^ in. from end of tube, so as to allow a 
leather or rubber washer to be inserted between the flange and 
the cylinder. The flange on outer end of tube is || in. in 
diameter, and has four -^^-va^ studs in it (see Fig. 79). Both 
flanges are \ in. thick. The steam pipe has also four -j^-ia 
studs, as shown. 


The piston-rod is made from a piece of ^V^^* bright steel 
wire 5 in. long. It must be centred perfectly true, and 
the end for piston being screwed with a ^in. thread, and 
then turned tapering for a length of \ in. The piston-head 
has a taper hole through it, into which the tapered end of 
piston-rod is forced as tightly as possible, and a |-in. nut 
screwed on the small end of rod keeps the piston in its place. 
The piston-rod is then put in the lathe, and the piston turned 
till it will just go easily into the cylinder. The thickness of 
piston-head is f in., see Fig. 80. It is then turned for a dis- 
tance of -^ in. from the side the nut is on, to a diameter of 
\\ in., leaving a flange at the front, of the same diameter as 
the cylinder, and -^ in. thick. The back of the piston is then 
turned away to a depth of iV in., excepting the boss in the 
centre, for the piston-rod nut to press against, which is \ in. 
diameter. A disc is required the same diameter as the front 
flange of piston, and -^ in. thick, with a ^-in. hole through it 
This is put over boss on back of piston, and four ^in. holes 
are drilled through into piston, into which four studs are tightly 
screwed, and on which nuts are put, to keep piston back in its 
place. The holes in back must of course be large enough to 
allow studs to slip through, so that it can be taken ofif when 
the nuts are removed. 

The exact length of the piston-rod can be best determined 
when the guide-bars and cross-head, &c., are in their places. 
It will not be necessary to polish the work until the engine is 
finished, as it will get tarnished, and possiby scratched, in the 
progressive stages of fitting together. 

The dimensions 
cross-head pin, 


Fig. 82. — Pin for Cross-head. jTjV 82 are : — 

Length over all, 3^ in. ; diameter, \^ in. ; length between 
<mUidc$ of collars, 2^ in. ; thickness of collars, 7^ in.; length 

Fig. 83.— Cross-head. 


of parallel part for cross-head, f| in. ; diameter of journals 
that go in slide-block and of small tapered part, \ in. The 
small end of tapered part is finished up to collars with a'durve, 
as shown. This pin is made of steel, and should be hardened 
in the middle to prevent wear. 

The cross-head for the piston-rod, shown at Fig. 83, is also of 
steel, and the easiest, as 
well as the best, way of 
making it is to drill a 
hole, \ in., through it to 
fit the small taper end of 
piston-rod, and put it on 
a steel mandrel — near the 
end of the mandrel to 
prevent springing — then 
turn it to the following 
dimensions and to the shape shown by the three views in Fig. 
83 : Diameter of collar on end next piston-rod, f in. ; dia- 
meter of hollow, -j7^ in. full ; the length from square part of 
cross-head to outside of collar being -^ in. In marking off 
the hole in the cross-head for the pin, the truest way will be 
to mark the centre of hole on one side of cross-head i^ in. 
from the collar on end, and put between centres ; advance a 
sharp-pointed tool in slide-rest till the point just enters the 
centre-punch mark previously made. Draw the tool away, turn 
the cross-head half round, and again advance the tool ; then, 
by working the cross-head slightly, another scratch will be 

A hole drilled through both of these marks is at right angles 
with the axis of piston-rod ; but it might be not exactly across 
the diameter. Turn the cross-head round till the original 
centre-punch mark is exactly opposite the point of tool in 
slide-rest; then, supposing the lathe has a divided pulley. 



draw back the tool a little, and turn the mandrel exactly half« 
way round, and the cross-head with it, and press the tool- 
point tightly against the cross-head. It can then be worked 
along by the slide-rest screw, thus making a scratch at right 
angles to and across the one previously made. 

A hole drilled through the point of intersection of these 
two scratches and through centre punch-mark on opposite 
side, will be both at right angles to the axis of, and exactly 
diametrically across the piston-rod. It is really only the work 
of a few minutes to do the centreing, and when this is done it 
allows of the sides of the cross-head being turned, which they 
could not well be if the holes were out of truth. The hole 
for cross-head pin is bored -^ in. diameter. The ^-in. man- 
drel is then taken out, and replaced by one put in holes for 
pin. The sides of cross-head can then be turned to shape 
like drawing, Figs. 83, and to the following dimensions :— 
Extreme width of cross-head, -ff- in. \ width of square part, 
f in.; depth of square part, f in. ; and diameter of circular 
bosses on each side of cross-head, f in. The ends of cross- 
head are rounded, as shown. The width of opening in the 
fork is f in. for small end of connecting-rod, and depth ^ in. 
from centre of bosses. 
The two slide-blocks are of gun-metal; one is shown 

in detail. Fig. 84. It is \\ in. long, 
\ in. thick, and ^ in. wide on the 
working face, the flange on inner 
side being -^ in. thick, and the same 


p in height The hole for cross-head 
pin is \ in. diameter, and if the block 
is chucked on a mandrel the sides 

Fig. 84.-Slide Blocks. ^^^ ^^^jg ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ yp ^^^ . ^^ 

rubbing surfaces will have to be filed or planed. If the ends 
of the block are left rounding as they are turned, they will 


ride over the oil on the guide-bars, and not tend to scrape it, 
up, as they would do if they were left quite square and 

Each §lide-block should be made a tight fit between the 
bars, and should be put between them with some powdered 
pumicestone or fine silver, sand and oil, and worked backwards 
and forwards till it works freely, and still is a tight fit ; after 
which every particle of grit must be removed from the block 
and guide-bars. 

Having proceeded thus far, the exact length of the piston- 
rod can be determined. The hole in cross-head must be 
broached out till the cross-head pin will nearly fit it ; then the 
pin. Fig. 82, can be ground into its place, it being necessary 
that it should fit in the cross-head tightly, otherwise the 
engine will hammer when working. The^ hole in cross-head 
for piston-rod will have to be broached out taper to a diameter 
of -j^ in. at the outer end, so that the piston-rod may be fitted 
into it 

" Put the slide-blocks, Fig. 84, on the ends of pin, and 

place them between the guide-bars, and push them towards 
the cylinder till the centre of pin is exactly i in. from 
centre of guide-bar. The cylinder, without the bottom 
on, can now be put in its place on the bed, and the 
piston pushed back till it is exactly -^^ in. from end of cylinder. 
The position of end of cross-head can now be marked on 
piston-rod ; this is then turned taper^ so as to fit the hole in 
cross-head tightly to that point. When the rod is fitted in 
cross-head, it should not go to within -^in. of its proper posi- 
tion, this space being left for the key to pull up. The key, shown 
in Fig. 83, is a piece of tapered steel Jin. long, full Jin. thick, 
Jin. wide at top, and ^ in. at bottom. The slots in cross- 
head and in piston-rod for this key are each ^ in. wider than 

) key, but in opposite directions, when cross-head is in its place 


on rod ; the end of the slot in the rod on the end next to the 
piston is -^in. nearer to piston than the corresponding end of 
slots in cross-head : and ends of slots in cross-head on side 
next the cross-head pin are fyin. nearer to the pin than slot 
in piston-rod; consequently, whdn the key is forced in its 
place, it draws the tapering piston-rod and cross-head closely 
together and wedges them tightly. 

For the connecting-rod it is unnecessary to give a special 
drawing, as similar connecting-rods have been illustrated at 
Figs. 40 and 56, and the exact shape of this one is shown in 
Figs. 71 and 72; an iron forging, large enough to work to 
the following finished dimensions, will be required :-^Length 
from centre of hole for cross-head pin to big end (outside) 
5^ in. ; diameter of boss, little end, f in. full ; width, f in. 
bare ; width of big end, -^ in. \ depth, i^in. ; thickness, \ in. ; 
width of rod, ^in., parallel from end to end; depth, little 
end, W in. ; big end, \ in. full. If the rod is put between 
centres, the flange for bolts at big end can be turned at top 
and bottom, and back and front, the sides being turned when 
it is bolted on the brasses. The hole in little end can either 
be bored out the right size and the iron afterwards case- 
hardened, or a small hardened steel bush can be made and 
forced into the rod, the bush being about ^ in. thick all 
round, and of course forced very tightly so as to fix in the rod. 
Great care must be taken that the hole is perfectly square with 
the rod. The cross-head pin must be as tight a fit in the rod, 
consistent with working properly. A small hole must be drilled 
through top of boss on rod, for the purpose of lubricating the 
pin. It will be advisable to have a small oil-cup fitted on, 
with a cap to keep out the dirt. 

The brasses for big end of rod are gun-metal castings, and 
are to be finished to isVii^- long, that is, parallel with con- 
necting-rod; depth, J^iu,; width, ^in.; wi4th across bpsfp 


in centre, -fin. bare; diameter of boss, H^^** ^^^ rounded 
ofTas shown. In making the brasses, first file the two inner 
faces square and smooth, then solder them together ; they can 
then be fixed on a chuck and the centre bored out for the 
crank-pin to a diameter slightly less than \ in., it being finished 
to the size by grinding. The pair of brasses are now put on a 
mandrel, and both the sides and bosses turned to the requisite 
width and diameter. The two ends will now hare to be 
turned flat and parallel, care being taken to keep the division 
line of brasses in the centre, both top and bottom. Par*, 
ticular care must be taken that the ends of the brasses which 
pull against the connecting-rod are perfectly square with the , 
axis of crank-pin, otherwise the big end will be twisted and 
will bind on pin. The top and bottom edges will have to be 
turned at the same time as the ends. 

A piece of iron, \ in. thick, is required to go on outside of 
big end. The holes for the two bolts are -^ in. diameter, and 
are i in. apart, centre to centre. The brasses will require 
to be ground to the crank-pin ; this is done by placing the little 
end on the cross-head, putting the pin through it and the 
guide-blocks, and the big end with the brasses on the crank- 
pin with some powdered pumicestone and oil ; then by turning 
the shaft round and tightening the nuts on big end a good fit 
will be made of the bearing. A hole will have to be drilled in 
the top of the big end to take an oil-cup with a -jV*^* thread. 
The position of cup is shown on drawing. Fig. 72, and a cup 
of suitable design is shown at Fig. 74. 

The eccentric will next engage our attention. Great care 
must be paid to fitting the strap on the sheave ; otherwise they 
will work with a deal of unnecessary fiiction. The following 
is a good means to adopt in making eccentrics up to about 
3 in, in diameter. The strapj which is of gun-metal, is first 
ioUi^r^ QQ \ ^\|c); ap4 bored out to \\ in^ 4iaineter| 


and the side is also turned; it can then be reversed on 
the chuck, and the other side turned until the strap is 
fin. thick. The holes in the lugs for holding together 
the two halves of strap are next made to clear the bolts, which 
are -^in. bare in diameter. These holes must be made before 
the strap is cut, so as to insure their being opposite in both 
lugs. The flat part of strap, for taking end of eccentric rod, 
is i^in. long, and fin; from inner edge of strap. It is 
fastened on by two -^-in. studs and nuts, as shown, the studs 
being tightly screwed into eccentric strap. An oil-cup will be 
required on strap, as shown. A drawing showing the inside of 
these cups is given at Fig. 74. 

The eccentric sheave, which is of cast iron, can be soldered 
on a chuck, 'and turned on one side, then reversed and turned 
on the other side, till it is \ in. full in thickness. The edge is 
now turned till the sheave is 2^ in. in diameter, and a groove 
sunk in edge for the strap ; this groovie is f in. bare in width, 
and if in. full in diameter. The strap, which has been cut in 
two, is now carefully ground into this groove, with a little fine 
silver sand and oil, imtil it bears equally all over, but the 
grinding must stop when the two halves of strap are within 
•^in. of together, so as to allow room for tightening up. 
Having marked the centre of sheave, the chuck must now be 
'warmed till the solder melts, and the sheave then pushed over 
f in. to one side. The centre of hole is now marked, and a 
f-in.' drill put through, and the hole then bored out with a tool 
in the slide-rest, to the exact size of that part of shaft on which 
it is to fit 

The best way to fix the sheave on the shaft Will be by X 
pointed steel screw passing diameterway through centre of 
widest part of sheave. This screw, owing to the strain 
from it passing through the centre of sheave, always keejSS 
sheave perfectly square with shaft, while a key, especially in 


filed key-waysy almost alwajrs bears unequally^ and thus 
twists the eccentric- sheave^ and causes the strap to bind in 
the groove. A countersunk hole in shaft should be made for 
the pouit of this screw, but it must not be drilled till the slide- 
valve has been set 

The eccentric rod, which also works the feed pump, is of 
wrought iron, and of the following dimensions : — Length from 
«nd to centre of pin for working valve gear, 6f in. ; rod at 
large end, depth, f in. ; at small end, ^ in. ; block for valve- 
gear pin, depth, ^ in. ; thickness, -^^ in. ; rod parallel, thick- 
ness, ^in. ; end for eccentric strap, thickness, ^ in. full; 
length, i^in. ; width, fin; block for valve-motion pin, 
length, f in. ; diameter of pin, -^jin. ; length of working part, 
^ in ; diameter of hole for pin of pump plunger, -^ in. ; 
diameter of boss on end of rod, -^in.; thickness, \ in. 
Fig. 72 shows the shape of this rod. 

The valve levers and supports are clearly shown in the 
details illustrated by Fig. 85, and are drawn double. The 
eccentric-rod lever is i^V ^°* ^<>°g ^^0°^ centre of rocking shaft 
to centre of slot for sliding block; length of slot, ^in. ; 
width, f^in. full; width of slotted endof rod, 3^ in. ; length, 
^in. ; thickness, -^in. bare; widths of tapered part of rod, 
large end, j^in. ; small end, -^ in. ; thickness, \ in.; diameter 
of circular head of rod, iyin.; length, ^in. ; diameter of hole 
for rocking shaft, ^\ in. 

The small lever is similar to the large one, with the excep- 
tion that it is slightly bent, as shown, this being to allow the 
boss to clear the nut which holds down one of the guide-bar 
supports. The rod can be made straight at first, and cranked 
to the extent of ^in. full, as shown, when finished. The 
outer edge of the tapered part is flush at bottom with edge of 
boss, as shown in Fig. 85. The boss is \^ in. diameter, and 
I'm. long; diameter of centre hole, i^in. ; distance from 

Fig. 85. 

Lever for Slide-valve and Force 


centre to centre of slot, ^ in. ; length of slot, f| in. ; width, 
T^in. ; full width of head, J^r^^-] length, -Hin. ; thickness, 

^ in. ; thickness of tapered part, 
\ in. ; width of wide end, \ in. ; 
small end, ^in. full. The dis- 
tance apart of the two levers, that 
is, between the bosses on rock- 
ing shaft, is f in., the rocking 
shaft being ^ in. diameter, and 
the levers fixed to it by two small 
keys, as shown. 
The angular position which these two levers form can be best 
determined in the process of erection. The small blocks that 
slide in the slots in levers are the same thickness as ends 
of levers, and are, for the large lever, -^^in. bare, long, and for 
the small lever, ^in. long. Each block has a full ^in. hole 
through it for the pins to work in« These blocks are shown 
in Fig. 85, and must be a good working fit in the levers. 
Both the levers and blocks are best made in forged steel, for 
the sake of strength. The rocking shaft is a piece of bright 
steel wire. The steel bolt for valve-rod cross-head is shown 
in Fig. 86 ; it is -^in. diameter, and is fin. long between nut 
and head. 

The valve-rod cross-head is shown large size in Fig. 86 ; it 
is screwed with a ^ftpin. screw, 
and a pin put through, as shown, 
to prevent it turning. The di- 
mensions of cross-head are : — 
Length from centre of pin to 
end next valve, H in. ; dia- fig. 86. 

meter of beading on end, f in. ; Cross-heads for Valve-rod and for 
-. ^ r • 1 -M, L Throttle-valve coupling, 

diameter of cu"cular part ot ^ ^ 

tides, ^ in. ; depth of cross-head, ^ in. ; width, ^ in. j width 



across circular bosses, f in. ; width of opening for rocking lever, 
^ in, full; depth, sufficient to allow lever to work freely. 
Hole for pin is -^in. diameter. The length of valve-rod is 
42 in., in addition to the part in the cross-head. 

The bracket marked Fig. 87 carries the valve-lever rocking- 
shaft, -and is made of caj^t iron. 
The bracket is bolted to the bed 
by two ^in. studs and nuts, the 
studs being screwed firmly into the 
bed. The bracket i^ Jin. long, 
and ^ in. thick where the studs 
pass through, the curved rib in 
front being the same thickness. The depth is J in. from top of 
bed to bottom of bracket, and the centre of the tb"^°- ^^^^ ^^^ 
rocking shaft is {^ in. from top of bed ; the diameter of top of 
bracket is fin., and length, | in. bare ; the width of bearing 
surface of bracket on t^p of bed is -^in., measuring inwards 
from edge of bed, the rest of the length of the top of bracket 
thus projecting over the bed. The distance from, centre of 
bracket to centre of cylinder is 2/^ in. 

This completes the details of tank engine shown on 
pages 72 ajid 73. . . 

Fig. 87. 
Bracket for Rocking Lever. 




HESE adjuncts are necessary to a complete model} 
though often both are neglected. In this chapter the 
governor of the engine shown on pages 72 and 73 and two 
pumps for engines shown at Figs. 50 and 72 are illustrated and 

The governor, or regulator, was for many years used by 
millers to regulate the speed of their grindstones, and was 
adapted by Watt for the purpose of working the throttle-valve 
in the steam pipe. The motion of the governor is derived, 
in the first instance, from the engine itself, by a cord or strap 
running round the crank-shaft and communicating its motion 
to the vertical governor spindle. Two weighted arms ar© 
attached to the spindle, revolving with it ; they have joints, so 
that the arms can be raised from or depressed towards the 
spindle. The arms are connected by levers which move freely 
on joints at their ends, and are connected to a ring, free to move 
up and down the spindle. When the engine is moving with 
great velocity, its increased rate of motion will be communicated 
to the governor spindle, and the weights or balls attached to 
the arms will fly further from the spindle, moving the ring oh 
the spindle ; this ring moves a bent lever, at the end of which 
is the throttle-valve. When the velocity of the engine is 
excessive, the action of this lever contracts the opening 
through throttle-valve, consequently less steam will pass 
into the cylinder, and the velocity of the engine will be 
decreased. Should the engine be running too slow, the balls 


would fall, the thTOttle-valve be opened, more steam admitted, 
and the engine would have its velocity increased. It is called 
a pendulum governor, because the time of a revolution is 
affected by the length of the axis of the cone formed during 
the rotation, in a manner analogous to that in which the time 
of swing of an 
ordinary pendur 
lum is affected 
by the length of 
the pendulum. 

The governors 
and throttle* 
valve, &c, for 
the tank engine 
described in 
two previous 
chapters are 
shown full size I 
on accompany- 
ing illustrations, 
Figs. 88 and 89, 
the dimensions 
can therefore be 
easily obtained 
by direct mea- 
. stvement. The 
governor is made 
of the following 
materials: — Cen- 
tral spmdle,steel; 
large weight, small balls, bell-crank lever, and central 
pillar, all wrought iron ; the base box and upper part, which 
forms the bearing for the bell-crank lever, are cast iron. The 

Figs. SS and B9, 
Section, Elovatlan, and Details of Governor. 


lever bracket (L) can be turned on the column as shown ; 
this is for the purpose of getting the bell-crank in a line with 
throttle-valve ; when once set it is prevented from tummg by a 
small set screw in the side pinching it against the pillar. 

All pins for holding together are steel, and the ipitre wheels 
are gun-metal. The wheel on central spindle is fixe(^ by means 
of a pin, as shown ; and the one on driving spindle is put on a 
square, with a screw in end to keep it on, as also shown. 
The small driving pulley may be cast iron. 

The governor is driven by a belt ^ in. wide, from an iron 
pulley i^ in. diameter, and f in. wide, and with a ^-in. groove 
round it. This is on the crank-shaft between driving pulley 
and eccentric, and is fixed with a key. 

The joints for connecting bell-crank of governor to throttle- 
valve are shown at Fig. Z(i^ the rod connecting the two being 
a piece of -^in. bright steel wire. Great care must be 
exercised in making throttle-valve and stop-cock, to prevent 
any leakage of steam, as it would greatly impair the action of 
the throttle-valve in regulating the speed of the engine. An 
external leak in the stop-cock would make everything very 
un^^easant, besides spoiling the lagging of the cylinder. . 

The stop-cock and throttle-valve are made separately; 
section and illustrations are shown at Figs, qd and 91, so as to 
simplify the construction, and also to get a sufficiently large 
chamber for the throttle-valve. It will be seen that the plug 
of the stop- cock does not go right through the shell, it being . 
kept up steam-tight by a gland piece on outer end. The shell 
of cock ought to be cast solid, the steam-ways being too 
small to core easily. 

The best way to make the steam-cock will be to bore a hole 
the sapie size as small end of plug, nearly through, as shown. 
Full -^in. of metal should be left. The hole is then bored 
out with a taper broach to the size shown, the taper stopping 


^in. from end of hole in order to allow plug to come 
further through in tightening up. The steam-way in the 
casting is to be bored next, and the ends next the plug are to 
be widened lengthways of plug, as shown on detail, in order 
to give a full passage to the steam. The broach is then put 
into hole for plug to clear away all burr. The plug is to be 
turned to the size shown, and. carefully ground into its place ; 
but before it is quite finished the steam-way must be drilled 
through it, and filed out to the length and width shown on 
sectional drawings of cylinder (Fig. 79). The plug can now 
be finally ground in till it is 
within i^in. of the end of 
hole, this' space being left 
for future regrinding. The 
projecting end of plug should 
be parallel from end of shell 
to its end, so as to offer no 
impediment to its being 
ground in further. The 
grinding must be done very 
carefully, care being taken 
not to press more on one 
side than on another. Two 
studs and nuts, -^in. dia- 
meter, are required to hold 

on KL 


Figs. 90 and 91. 

the plug-gland on its place, section, Elevation and details of Steam- 
The hand wheel is fixed Tap and Throttle-valve. 

with a nut on a square. 

The throttle-valve chamber is larget than the bore of stop- 
cock, so as to allow room for the valve without choking the 
passage of the steam. The valve is an oval disc with a square 
hole through it for the spindle. If it has projecting pieces 
cast on purposci it can be turned on the slant to the same 

Mi TJSe Model MNGikE&k'^ haNdySoo^. 


^ize as the chamber, and so would fit it perfectly steam-tight 
The pieces it is turned on can then be cut off. The lever on 
end of spindle is to be in the position shown on elevation 
(Fig. 72) when the valve is open. This lever is iron, and the 
spindle — which is steel — is reduced near its end to a square 
to take the valve, and then further reduced at end of square to 
a round, so as to form an inner bearing inside valve-chamber, 
as shown on section. The lever is fixed on end of spindle by 
a small set screw. The spindle is made steam-tight in the 
stuffing-box by having a cord formed of two or three strands 
of lamp cotton twisted round it, and then forced tightly down 
into stuffing-box by the gland. The construction of this part 
is shown on sectional drawing of cylinder (Fig. 79). The 
steam-pipe, stop-cock, and throttle-valve are bolted to each 
other and to the cylinder by four ^ in. studs and nuts in each, 
as shown. The throttle-valve and stop-cock are gun-metal, 
and the steam pipe, which is ^in. external diameter, is 
copper, as are also the exhaust and pump pipes. This com- 
pletes the governor. 

In large steam-engines the feed water, to replace that used 
to make steam, is usually forced into the boiler by a feed pump, 
worked by the engine or by an injector. The feed pipes are 
often fitted with a weighted valve, which allows the water to 
pass to the cistern when the feed cock is closed. A donkey 
pump is sometimes attached to the boiler, to feed it when the 
engine is at rest. The feed water is generally heated before 
it enters the boiler, by passing it through a multitubular water 
heater, so placed that the gases from the furnace may pass by 
and heat them. 

The usual type of pump sold for use on models is shown 
at Fig. 92. 

Force-pumps for very small boilers are usually a mistake. 
They deliver more water than the boiler can take, or they 


will not act at all. If wanted for the sake of appcataoce, it 
would be much the best to put on a dummy pump. A pump 
can often be made 
of a workable and 
useful size by gearing 
from the plunger of 
the pump to the 
crank- snatt m sucn 
a way ttiat tne stroke 
of ihe pump repre- 
sents adozenrevolu- 
tionsof the fly-wheelj 
or the pump may be 
made so that it can 
be disconnected as 
a rule and set to 
work as occasion 
may require. 

Feed pumps are 
generally single- ""• **■ 

acting and are often ''^"^ Fc.rce-Pump. 

arranged with a trunk plunger, so that an eccentric-rod can 
be directly connected with the plunger by means of a joint 
without the use of a guide. With this arrangement, care 
should be taken to make the stufHng-box, which guides the 
plunger, at least equal in length to the stroke. 

In ordinary practice the capacity or theoretical quantity a 
feed pump will inject in a given time is at least equal to twice 
the quantity evaporated by the boiler, or in marine engines 
about four times. 

The efficiency of feed pumps is about from 20 per cent, to 
70 per cent, of their theoretical delivery, due to the area of 
the plunger and speed of the strokes. This loss of efficiency 


is mainly caused by the fact that unless the pump plunger is 
moved sloniy the banel is not filled at the end of a complete 


Figs. 93, 94, 95 and gS. 
Croii, Vertical and Horizontal Sections o[ Force-pump lot LAtinch En^iM. 

Stroke. This is due to the inertia of water, which cannot 
follow the duller when moving rapidly. As a general rule. 

FEED PUMP. : 105 

the quicker the pump runs the' smaller the efficiencj. The size 
of pump depends upon the quantity of water to be delivered^ 
and is best calculated from the particulars of the engines to 
be worked. 

The length of stroke and the area of plunger govern the 
work done by feed pumps. 

The accompanying illustrations (Figs. 93, 94, 95 and 96) show 
the construction of the feed pump shown in its place on the 
launch-engine described in Chapter VI. The illustrations are 
scale drawings, and for the most part explain themselves. As 
before mentioned the plunger has f-in. stroke, and is \ in. in 
diameter. The plunger is made of brass tube with one end 
closed by a disc of brass fixed by hard solder. The joint by 
which the plunger is attached to the eccentric-rod is screwed 
into the centre of the disc, and a pin put diametrically through 
the plunger forms an effectual fitting (see Fig. 96), The 
connecting-rod is shown at Fig. 97. 

The valves are made by spheres resting on seatings as 
shown in the sectional view. The best method of making 
these spheres is to bore a hole through a short piece of round 
steel rod, so as to leave only about \ in. thickness all round. 
Then turn away the steel from the inside so as to get the 
middle part of the 
boring bigger than 
the ends. File the 
ends flat, then 
harden and tem- 
per. The bore 
should be ground 
out with a cylin- 



>& tj 


Fig. 97. 
Connecting-rod for Foice-Pumii. 

drical grinder so as to get the ends quite true, and the ends 
should then be polished on a flat surface. This tool should 
be made about two-thirds of the diameter of the ball on 


which' it is intended to act. It should be fitted in a handle 
and one end may be nsed for toughing, and the other fi}r 
finishing the spheres. 

To produce true spheres turn a ball roughly to shape — gun- 
metal is good material for the balls — and make a cup-shaped 
wood-chuct to hold it very loosely. The tool applied to the 
rough ball will soon remove all irregularities, and when it 
ceases to cut, a perfect sphere will be produced in a few 
minutes' work. If too large for the purpose it must be reduced 
by filing, and then trued again by the cutting tool. 

These balls must not be allowed much play when working, 
or the seatings will be damaged. The drawing shows the 
methods of checking the rise of both balls in this pump. 

The seatings should be very narrow, in fact, merely the edge 
taken off the sharp arris. The ball may be used itself to very 
slightly grind its own seat Large balls are made hollow to 
reduce the weight, and so prevent injury to the valve searings. 

This pump is provided with an air chamber, to equalise the 

flow of water, and it forms a cushion to break the force of the 

hammering caused by the water being injected. A back- 

pressure valve is used in some cases to prevent the flow of 

g water in one direction. One is illustrated by 

9 Fig- 98. Its object is to relieve the pump of the 

g weight of all that water which has passed the 


In all fast-running hydraulics an air chamber 

Ftc. 98. should be attached to the delivery side of a 
Bact-pressure pump (to equalise the pressure and flow), and 
Force-Pump. if a very fast-running pump, to the suction 
side also. The suction pipe should be made as short as 
possible. A feed escape-valve is sometimes attached to 
the delivery side of a pump or to air chamber, if one is used. 
This valve is weighted, so that in the event of the engine going 


too fast, and the pipe not getting cleared quick enough, the 
slight increase of pressure opens the valve and allows the 
water to escape. Wlien a feed escapc-valvc is used, a feed 
clieck-valve is made adjustable, and the quantity of water 
entering the boiler can be regulated, or the supply stopped, 
by screwing down the stop which regulates the lift of valve, 
The pet-cock often fixed to a feed pump barrel is used to test 
the action of the pump (to see whether it is drawing water), 
and to draw off confined steam or air. Lift of valves in feed 
pumps should be restricted and carefully adjusted, because 
with great lift the valve acquires too much velocity, and there- 
by increases the 
pressure in barrel 
each time the valve 
closes, and in- 
creases wear of 
seatings. In large - 
pumps it is oflen 
better to use, in- 
ttead of a single 
large valve, two 
small valves. As 
before noted, sphe- 
rical \-alves are 
sometimes made 
hollow for light- 
ness. FlQ. 99' 

Fig. 99 shows a Section of rorcc-Purop. 

sectional view of a force-pump, from which may be seen the 
general principles on which these pumps act Tlie inlet and 
ontlet for water are shown. 

The feed pump for the tank engine, already fully described, 
is shown by complete scale drawings in Figs. loo, 107, 102 and 


103 ; it may be made in gim-metal. It is on the trunk principlei 
this form throwing much less friction on the gland than that 
with a solid plunger with the eccentric-rod fixed to the outer end. 
It is of extra large dimensions, in order to allow the engine to 
be worked from a boiler of good size, besides which, it is very 
unpleasant to be working an engine the pump of which is 
barely able to keep up the supply of water ; and there is also 
another reason, viz., that very small pumpt often refuse to act. 
A good model boiler, is often spoiled through inability to keep 
up the water level. 

If it is desired, a return pipe and tap can be screwed into 
pump between first and second delivery valves, as shown in 
Figs. This arrangement allows the pump to be always 
pumping water, which, when not being sent into the boiler, 
can be returned to tank ; and thus preventing valves gettin » 
stuck on their seats, and ensuring the water going into boiler 
immediately it is turned on. The amount of feed can also be 
regulated by it belter than by shutting off the tap on suction 
pipe, as if this latter is done, the pump, owing to its not being 
filled properly at each stroke, will hammer very much. The 
barrel of the pump may be cored out in the casting, but it will 
be better to have the clack-boxes cast solid and bore them out 

The plunger of this pump is made of a piece of |-in. triblet 
brass tube i^ in. long, into one end of which a disc of brass^ 
\ in. thick, is silver soldered. In the centre of this, a ^in* 
hole is drilled and tapped. Into this is to be screwed a joint 
for eccentric-rod of the shape and size figured on sectional 
drawings, page 109. A lock nut will be required on end of 
screw to prevent joint working loose. The pump will require 
three ^-in. studs to hold it to bed-plate : one in each foot on 
sides of stuffing-box and one under clack-box, as shown. 

The barrel of pump is bored out to fin. diameter to 


within I in. of bottom, the stuffing-box being afterwards en- 
larged to {in. diameter and ^in. deep, the gland being 
f in. longi diameter, f in. bare, thickness ot flange, \ in., 

length, i^in., width, ^in., and of shape shown in Fig. 102 
The outside diameter of pump barrel is f in., and that of 
itufling-box, 5 in, full, and length |in. Flange for fixing to 


bed, measures, from end to end, i^^in., and width |m. The 
centre line of pump is to be \% in. from face of bed, and the 
face of flange consequently this distance from centre. Thick- 
ness of flange, -f^ in., and flange under clack-box the same ; 
length of flange being \ in., and depth, ^in. The length of 
pump barrel from commencement of curve in stufiing-box to 
upper side of first clack-box is 4i in. The diameter of both 
clack-boxes is ^ in., the length of first one being \ in., and 
the second one ^ in., and the top raised ^in. above the first 
one, the two being connected by a square piece % in. wide and 
fin. deep. This piece is in one casting with pump, and 
serves as a passage for the water. 

The construction and dimensions of the valves and seatings 
is so clearly shown on the scale drawings that it is not 
necessary to give sizes here, so a few hints as to how to set 
about making it will be given. 

The box next barrel is first carefully centred at top and 
bottom, and a full ^in. hole is to be drilled right through. 
A large hole of the diameter and depth figured on drawing is 
then drilled into each end, thus leaving a flat disc in about 
centre of box. These holes will require to be tapped with a fine 
thread to size given. On this disc the first delivery-valve is 
seated. The ^-in. hole in central disc will require to be very 
carefully smoothed on the upper edge to form a seating for 
valve. The two caps on top of clack-boxes are as shown, with 
central pieces projecting inside to regulate lifl of valves. 

The exact length of these pieces can be determined when 
valves are in, and should be such as to allow valves to lift not 
more than -^ in. bare. The suction-valve is prevented from 
rising too much by a piece of -gjg-in. brass wire passed through 
two holes in top of valve-seating piece before it is screwed 
into clack-box. Construction is shown in details. 

The passage from first to second delivery-valves can be 


made by drilling two holes fully \ in. diameter through the 
piece joining the two clack-boxes. They can be drilled from 
near the top of the first clack-box slightly slanting downwards 
to the bottom of second box, that is, within \ in. of the bottom. 
The second box is then to be centred top and bottom, and a 
j^in. hole drilled right through, if it is desired to put a return 
pipe to pump ; if not, to within \ in. of bottom. Thi$ hole must 
have full communication with the two holes from first box. 
The top of box is bored out and tapped same as previously 
described, and a cap fitted to it. The valve-seat is also 
treated the same. 

To connect the delivery-pipe union there is a f-in. piece 
cast on the second clack-box close to the top, as shown ; this 
piece has a |-in. thread on it to take the union, and has a 
^in. hole through it into box. The thread for suction-pipe 
union is -^in. diameter. 

The bore of suction-pipe of pump is Jin., and delivery-pipe 
•^ in. Pipes have collars on end to keep unions on. The 
connection of pump suction-pipe with tank is made with a 
union and screw piece, same as to pump, but, of course, with- 
out a valve in it. The tap is shown on elevation of tank 
engine, page 73. 

The retiun tap of pump may be connected to tank by an 
indiarubber tube stretched over tap, and the tube should 
be wrapped with wire to secure it to the tap* 

Valves are the most likely parts of these pumps to give 
trouble. The mitre seating cone valves, as shown at 
Fig. 99, are often considered easier to make than the 
ball valves illustrated in connection with the pumps for 
the Launch Engine and Tank Engine previously described. 
It is not difficult to substitute the one for the other, 
bat balis are the better form, and the method of making 
these^ described on page 106^ is really not difficult 



HEN all the parts of an engine are made, we caa 
proceed to the pleasantest part of the work, that is, 
erecting — the technical term for putting together. If the 
preceding chapters have been read carefully, there will be 
very little trouble in putting together the Tank Engine de- 
scribed in Chapters VII. and VIIL, as the dimensions and 
drawings were taken from an engine already constructed and 
working most satisfactorily. All the bright parts must first be 
polished. The zinc plate is first fitted to the bed, and then 
the cylinder can be dealt with. The front cover must have a 
thin layer of red lead spread over the part that fits against 
cylinder; after which it is bolted to cylinder as firmly as 
possible, all the lead that squeezes out from between the joint 
bt-ing wiped off, as also any that may chancel to have got into 
the cylinder. The piston and rod — minus the rings and back 
— are then put in, and the rings sprung into the cylinder, the 
cuts being at opposite sides. The piston is then pushed up 
into the rings, and the disc put on and bolted down to it, 
leaving the rings just free to expand. The back cover of 
cylinder is then treated with red lead, the same as the front 
one ; but after being forced down as tightly as possible it is 
taken off again to see that no red lead has got into the cy- 
linder, after which it can be bolted down permanently. The 
gland on cylinder cover is now to be packed, by wrapping a 
cord of about eight strands of lamp cotton several times 
round piston-rod and gradually forcing it into the stuffiog- 


brjx; and after oiling it, the gland should be tightly bolted 
down, care being taken that it, bears equally on the piston-rod 
all round. The cross-head is now put on the piston-rod and 
fixud by the cross key. If all the flange joints are faced up 
absolutely true, all thiat will be necessary to make them steam- 
tight will be to rub them with a little boiled oil before putting 
together. This, of course, is the best joint, but where it 
cannot be made, a thin layer of red lead, or disc of brown 
paper soaked in oil will do. It must not be forgotten to 
make a hole through the paper to let the steam pass where 

The valve-chest is now to be bolted to the cylinder, the 
flanges being packed with red lead, and then the cylinder 
can be bolted to the bed-plate. Two holes will be required in 
the asinc cover of the tank for the ends of the blow-off* cocks 
—-which are already fixed in their places — to project through. 

The blow-off" cocks are of the shape shown in Figs. 79 and 
80, which illustrate sections of the cylinder. It will be seen 
that one handle opens both cocks at the same time, the plugs 
of both cocks being connected. The plug of cock in front of 
cylinder has a rod left on it, as shown, which has a square 
socket made in the end of it, into which the squared end of 
the second plug fits. In screwing the taps into the cylinder, 
the one next to the front has to be put in first, after which 
screw in the shell of the second one \ then put in the plug, 
first placing the nut and washer in their place on the rod 
between shell and socket. The nut can be screwed up as the' 
plug comes through shell, while, at the same time, the square 
on end of plug will slide into the socket. When the cocks 
are fiiU open, the handle that Works them will have to be at 
an angle of 45* from the vertical, so as to allow of the neces- 
sary motion for shutting off. The cylinder lubricator is 
ihown both in Figs. 79 and 80. The lading fot cylinder 



is best prepared now that it is not liable to get damped in 

putting together. 

The cylinder is held down by two A^'i- studs and nuts on 
the outside ; bat the two studs ander valve-chest, instead of 
having nuts on them, are \ in. diameter, and have washeis 
and taper pins through them, these being easier to fix than 
nuts would be in this position, though they are just as effec- 
tive. Great care must be taken to get cylinder exactly in 
line with the bed, though it would be ditScuIt to do other- 
wise if the previous instruclions have been followed. The 
exhaust-pipe connecting elbow will have to be fixed to cy- 
linder before it is bolted down, the joint being made with red 
lead or brown paper and oil The lower guide bars and 
supports are now to be fixed down, and then the small end 
of connecting-rod and the cross-head, with the cross-head pin 
through them, are put in their place between the guide blocks,. 
9nd then the distance pieces and top guide bars are bolted 
down. The plummer-blocks being bolted down, the crank- 
ihafl in its place, and the caps on, the big end of connecting- 
rod can be fixed on the crank-pin. The fly wheel may now 
be fixed, when it can be seen whether the piston, guide 
blocks, &C., work properly. 

At this stage of the work it is necessary to know something 
of the action of 
the slide-valve, 
illustrated at 
Figs. 104, 103 
and 106. The 
FiQ. 104. following points 

Sleam-waya in Cylinder. should be re. 

membered : — 

Lead is the amount of opening which a valve has when tlic 
engine is on the centre. 


A slide-valve is said to have no bp when tKe valve will just 

span the exhaust port and bridges, and the faces just equal 

the ports in 

Neg^lTB lap in Cjriiiider. 

valve has neither lap nor lead the eccentric is set at an angle 
of 90° with the crank on the side toward which the engine is 
to run, Moving the eccentric forward makes, the aclion of the 
valve earlier with reference to the crank at alt its points. 

Moving the eccentric backward makes tlie action of the 
valve later with reference to the crank at all its points. 

When the face of the valve exceeds the ports in width, the 

, amount which it projects over the edges of the port when in 

its central position is termed lap. The projection of the 

outside edge over the port — that is, the edge at which the 

opening for admission takes place — is called the outside or 

steam lap ; the 

projection on 

the inside Or 

exhaust side of 

 the face is call- 

__ , ed the inside or 

FiO. loC i . , 

Eibanat lap in Cylindw. exhaustlap (see 

Fig 106). 

When outside lap is added, the eccentric must be set 

enough further ahead of the crank to take up the lap, so that 

the valve may be all ready to open when the engine is upon 

the centre. Usually a little lead is also given in order that 


the steam may get in and the port be opening as the piston 
advances. The effect of outside lap is to close the valve 
earlier and allow the steam to expand. The effect of inside 
lap is to close the exhaust earlier and introduce compression. 

Having a clear idea of the working of the valve, we may 
proceed to set the eccentric. This is a work requiring great 
care, so most minute instructions are given how to do it. The 
slide-valve rod is first to be put in its place in the valve-box. 
The slide-valve being in the box, with a collar at each end, 
the rod passes through thera. The bracket for valve levers, 
with the levers in their place, is next bolted down, and the 
small lever connected to the valve-rod cross-head. The 
eccentric and strap is next put on the crank-shaft and fixed 
there — the position does not matter at first — ^and the eccentric 
rod is connected to the long valve lever, the eccentric-rod be- 
ing next the bed-plate, and parallel to it The crank-shaft is 
now turned round till the wide side of eccentric is next the 
cylinder, and then the slide-valve is fixed on its rod in such a 
position that the back port is open | in. Now turn the shaft 
half round till the wide side of eccentric is furthest from 
cylinder, and note if the front port is also open \ in. If both 
ports open exactly the same amount, the valve is in its right 
place on rod ; if they do not open the same, the valve must 
be moved a little towards the one most open until they both 
open the same. The slide-valve is then securely fixed on its 
rod, after which the eccentric can be fixed in its proper position. 

This is done as follows : Turn the crank on its near centre, 
the piston-rod will be thus into the cylinder as far as possible, 
then place the eccentric with its widest side down, then keep 
turning this side round towards the cylinder until a strip of 
writing paper can just be inserted between the valve and the 
back port Now fix the eccentric tightly on the shaft by the set 
icrewi then turn the shaft round till the Crank Is oh the otiier 


centre, that is, the piston-rod fully out, and note if the 
strip of paper can just be inserted into the front port When 
so, the eccentric is in its proper position, and after working 
the pointed set screw about a little so as to make a decided 
mark in the shaft, a small hole should be drilled for the point 
of screw to go in, and so prevent eccentric shifting. This 
amount of opening of port before the commencement of the 
stroke is called the lead, and is for the purpose of checking 
the momentum of the moving parts, and thus preparing for the 
return stroke. It is absolutely essential to the silent and good 
working of all engines, but more particularly of those that run 
at a high speed. 

If the setting of the valve on its rod is carefully done, the 
lead will be the same at both ends of the stroke. The collars 
for holding the valve in its place are provided with set screws, 
as shown on Fig. 3i. 

The feed-pump is bolted on bed in the position shown on 
drawing, the plunger being within -^ in. of bottom of barrel, 
when fully in. The axis of pump is parallel with that of 
eccentric-rod when in either extremity of its throw. The 
suction and delivery pipes are connected after pump is fixed. 
To connect eccentric-rod to pump plunger, it will have to be 
unbolted from eccentric strap and valve gear and the plunger 
taken out of pump. The small joint can then be connected to 
rod and screwed into plunger, the lock nut fixed, and the parts 
connected up again. The governor pedestal is bolted to bed-, 
plate with four studs and nuts, as shown in Figs. 88 and 89. 

The stop-cock and throttle-valve may next be fixed up to 
cylinder valve-box, the joint being made as described ; and con- 
nection made between the governors and throttle-valve by the 
piece of ^in. steel wire and adjustable screwed joints. The 
pump and valve-box glands now require to be packed the same 
M described for cylinder glands. It will be as well to make the 


joint of valve-box cover with brown paper, as the cover may 
require to be taken off, and a red lead joint has to be re-made 
each time it is broken, while a brown paper one does not. 
The throtlle-valve connecting-rod to governors will require to 
be cranked out a little to meet the crank on valve-spindle (see 
plan of engine on page 72). The exact length of this rod 
can only be-deterrained when the engine is under steam. It 
can be lengthened or shortened by unscrewing or screwing up 
one of the joints according to the speed at which it is desired 
the engine should run. Lengthening the rod will cause the 
engine to run quicker, that is, within certain limits. The 
driving pulley, and that for the governor, are next to be put 
on, and the lubricators screwed in (these latter are shown ia 
position on Figs. 71 and 72). The last thing to be done before 
painting is to lag the cylinder. The lagging may be made of 
mahogany or. rosewood, cut into strips iin. wide and Jin. 
thick. These are got up to as smooth a surface as possible 
and oiled: French polish will not do, as the heat causes it to 
blister. The engine is now ready for painting— the colour 
may be according to choice. The parts to be painted are the 
fly-wheel and driving-pulley spokes, all the bed-plate, with the 
exception of the tops of the lugs, the body of the pump, 
recesses in valve-box cover, body of valve-box, guide bars, 
governor stand, plummer-blocks, etc. ; in fact, everything, 
except those parts which have been got up bright with the 
file or have been turned. 

Before painting, the castings should be trimmed up smooth 
and well-cleaned by brushing; a coat of lead colour should 
then be applied. When this is thoroughly dry it should be 
smoothed with glass-paper, and again painted. These pro- 
cesses may be repeated again before the final coat of colour 
is applied. 

A boiler that would best suit this engine should work safely 

BOILER, 110 

at 50 lbs or 60 lbs. pressure, and is beyond the power of most 
amateurs to make. It ought to be vertical, from 20 in. to 
24 in. high and 9 in. to 12 in. in diameter, and about 24 tubes 
2 in. diameter through. A boiler this size will make enough 
steam for all purposes, but if it is only desired to work the 
engine as a model, a very much less one will do, say about 
6 in. diameter by 12 in. high, to burn charcoal as fuel 



FEW words on model boilers and their construction 
will now be advisable. They have been mentioned 
several times incidentally in the preceding chapters, but, with 
the exception of the small tin boiler for the oscillating engine 
described in Chapter III., particulars of their construction 
have been omitted. It is not an easy task making a steam 
boiler, and in most cases it will be found cheapest in the end 
to purchase ready made. 

The materials most generally used are brass and copper ; 
sometimes iron, or, what amounts to the same thing, tin-plate, 
is employed. Brass or copper, from the ea^e with which they 
can be manipulated, are the best for a beginner to work on. 

Brass can be bought in the form of tube of sufficient size 
for small models, and strong enough to stand the steam 
pressure. The edges of the bought tube are brazed together, 
and thus the joint is made nearly as strong as the other part. 
The tube is afterwards drawn, and except from a slight dis- 
colouration, the joint is not noticeable. 

Brass tube, from two inches to six inches in diameter, cut 
in lengths suited for boilers, is sold by most of the model 
engineers. The price of the tube ranges from about 2x. per 
foot for the small to about lo^. per foot for the large size ; the 
short length necessary for a boiler being charged at about the 
same proportion. This is merely for the tubular body part of 
the boiler, and it may be placed vertically or bori^QQtally a^ 


The ends or flanges which have to be lilted on are extra 
pieces. Sometimes a plain disc of metal is fixed by soldering 
with pewter, but this plan should be strenuously avoided. 
The ends sliould at least be brazed on. It is best also to use 
discs with a rim round them to fit outside the boiler shelL 
This gives a much stronger hold than is possible with a plain 
disc of sheet metal. 

Castings used for the boiler ends must be quite free from 
any flaws, as the weak part will be apt to give way under the 
steam pressure. It is often advisable to use castings, which 
may be made of a shape exactly suited to certain requirements. 
An inverted cup-shaped casting for the lower end of a vertical 
boiler gives a good heating surface. A flue for the chimney 
must be put in it, and this goes up to the top end oi the 
boiler, which may appropriately be dome-shaped. 

Two vertical boilers of the ordinary type sold at the shops 
we shown at Figs. 107 and 108. 


The flue and both ends of the boiler should be brazed in 
their places, not soft-soldered. Some prefer to use silver 
solder for such purposes, and this is an excellent material. 
When the joints are made to fit properly, as they should do 
before soldering, only very little solder is required to unite the 
parts. Borax is used as the flux, both for the alloy employed 
in brazing and for silver solder. The heat required to flow 
these properly may be got from an ordinary gas jet, with the 
burner or nipple removed, using a common blowpipe to urge 
the flame. 

A horizontal boiler is frequently only a plain tube, 
with ends soldered in, and supported on legs to raise it 
fiufliciently to allow a lamp to be put underneath. The heat 
applied in this manner does not take eflect as it should. The 
flame is deflected from the surface of the boiler, and, more- 
over, any breath of wind stirring will blow the flame aside. A 
plain saddle-shaped boiler is much better ; in this form the 
heating surface is large, and the heat from the furnace is 
applied to it direct, and cannot well be deflected. 

Flues or tubes are very desirable in any form of boiler, and 
one or the other should be used. The plain straight chimney 
put through the boiler is the most simple form of flue. If this is 
of spiral form, like a corkscrew, the eflect is infinitely increased, 
because the heat, instead of ascending straight up through the 
vertical tube, is met at every turn with a fresh surface of metal. 
In winding its way through a spiral flue, the heat is absorbed 
in a way quite unattainable when a straight tube is used. 
Several small flues are of course better than one large one of 
the same area. By increasing the number of flues the cost of 
making a boiler is also increased, and it is to save expense 
that large flues are used* 

Boilers for locomotiveSi which are required to make steam 
very fast, have an immense number of flues running through 


them- The space between the flues, which is occupied by 
the water, is often very small, and in fact the flues are put as 
'closely together as possible. As the heat rushes through 
them it is absorbed by the water in contact with the flues, and 
turns it into steam. The greater the heating surface the more 
readily is the steam generated. 

A boiler suited to the engine shown at Fig. 3, on page 12 
is described below by a coppersmith. 

Fig. 109 shows boiler quarter-size. It will be seen that 


■I. M 


I fH .^ 

I !■ < 



Fig. log. 
Horizontal Boiler. 

only one large flue passes from fire-box to smoke-box, instead 
of a number of small ones. , It has been found that for small 
models, intended to burn charcoal, one large flue gives good 
results and is much easier to make than one having a number 
of smaller flues. 

The first thing will be to get some sheet copper ; those who 
do not possess the skill to do it themselves may have the boiler 
brazed together. Others who have not the conveniences for 
brazing may prefer riveting, but it will be found to take very 
much longer time. In either case it requires care : in brazing 



to avoid burning the copper, and on the other hand to keep 
from bruismg the boiler in the process of riveting. 

To make that part of boiler that contains fire-box, cut two 
pieces of the copper 6^ in. by 4I in. ; this will leave \ in. to 
flange over for riveting. The other plates must be cut as Fig. 
no. The oval hole is the fire-hole. The round hole is 
where the body of boiler fits on. To flange both plates, we 
require some tinplate workers' tools, but in the absence of these 
we must get a piece of round iron, 2-in. diam., and square up 
one end ; fix this in vice after having carefully marked the 
plate all round \ in. from edge, lay it on the iron, and, with a 
hammer, bring the edge over square. It will be better to cut 
out fire-hole, &c., after the edge is turned over. Now we want 
another piece 4 in. wide to rivet ends to, and to get the 
length measure round the edge of one of the plates with a 
piece of string. This plate must be bent in shape of a Uy 
Fig. no, and riveted to the two plates. To do this we 

Fig. 1 10. 
Fire-Boz and Ends of Boiler. 

shall want a riveting stake made round at the end, and some 
copper rivets ^ thick ; they can be made from copper wire, 
or purchased at the ironmonger's. 

It will be best to drill the holes for rivets. Put one at the 
top and one on each side, near bottom corner; space the 
holes with a pair of compasses— they may be f in. apart ; rivet 
with a small hammer, and, for appearance sake, finish with a 
snap. This tool is made by drilling a conical hole in the end 
of a piece of steel. To use it, give the rivets a few blows 

itAicikG CopPMr £0/lEJiS. fij 

with a hammer, then place on the punch, and strike the end 
with the hammer until you have a nice conical rivet head. 
The body of boiler is 7 in. long, and flanged at both ends. 
The copper must be cut off 7I in. by 11 in., and bent round, 
the seam either brazed or riveted, and the flanges at the ends 
brought out. One end is riveted to the fire-box part, the 
other carries the tube-plate at smoke-box end. In riveting 
these parts together, the holes may be counter-sunk on the 
outside, and the punch or snap dispensed with, as the lagging 
will cover these rivets. The tube-plate at the end of boiler 
must be thicker than the rest, and the hole for tube bored 
out, so that the tube can be nicely driven in. This plate is 
also flanged to take the smoke-box, which is 2 in. wide by 
4^in ; one end is flanged inwards to form a ledge for fire 
door. The chimney bottom may be made either from sheet 
copper or cast brass. The fire-box must be made in the same 
manner as the boiler, and riveted ; one side that the tube fits 
in must have \ in. space left all round for water. A ring is 
put round the fire-hole, and riveted through. The same with 
the bottom, only this will want to be square, and made to fit 
well between boiler and fire-box. The whole is riveted all 
round. Before putting in the fire-box the hole for tube must 
be made. It should be screwed with a fine thread, and tube 
made to fit before putting it together. When all is riveted 
the joints may be smelted with soft solder, which ^ill make it 
steam tight 

The sheet copper used for this boiler should be 12 and 16 
gauge on the Birmingham plate. 

Tubes are often put across the fire-grate; they are then 
called cross tubes. Two, placed one above the other and 
crossing each other, will give a large amount of heating 
surface. By adding this simple contrivance to a vertical 
boiler with a straight flue it may be made to giv« off much 


more steam. One or two cross tubes generally suffice to con-^ 
vert a useless boiler — that is, one that will not generate enough 
steam— into an effective one. 

The fuel used to heat very small boilers is generally spirits 
of wine. This is put in a suitable receptacle, and burnt 
through a coiton wick. Several wicks are used in large 
boilers, and they are placed to heat the largest surface avail- 
able. Spirit-lamps are a source of danger if proper precautions 
are not taken. Unless there is a free outlet for the air within 
the lamp, it will be expanded by the heat, and cause the. 
spirit to rise too quickly in the wick. Sometimes it will over- 
flow, and then it bums wherever it may be. Care must, 
therefore be exercised in using spirit fuel. In model boats it 
occasionally happens that the spirit overflows, and the boat is 
all ablaze. An iron tea-tray, or some such utensil, should be 
used to stand the boiler on when the furnace is to be lighted.. 

Charcoal is a belter fuel when there is sufficient space in 
the fire-box to contain a supply. The waste steam from the 
cylinder must always be conveyed to the chimney, and escape 
up it to make a draft through the fire. Without this it cannot 
be made to burn sufficiently fierce for the purpose. A 
charcoal fire will act very well with a little attention, and 
except for the smallest engines it is always preferable to 
methylated spirit. 

As it is not possible to give any adequate instructions on- 
boiler-making in the limited space at my disposal, the above 
hints are chiefly intended for the guidance of purchasers. 

A safety-valve should always be fitted to a steam boiler. . 
One of the spring valves has been illustrated in the chapter 
treating of the small oscillating engine. The lever safety-, 
valve is more certain in its action, especially in model work,, 
and is better adapted for stationary purposes. A weighted 
lever is of no use to a locomotive or marine boiler, as the 


motion of travelling would disarrange the gear. The safety- 
valve of every engine should be tested frequently, to make 
sure that it does not stick in its place and that all works 
perfectly free. 

A glass gauge, by which the height of water may be seen at. 
a glance, is frequently attached to boilers having any pre- 
tension to high-class workmanship. There is a good deal of 
work in a properly made gauge, and the cost is corre- 
spondingly high. Two or three stop-cocks are required in a 
gauge, and these involve good workmanship, or they will not 
stand the pressure. Leaky taps are a sign of inferior work. 

Gauge-cocks are sometimes used instead of the water-gauge 
just mentioned. These are plain taps with straight noses. 
Two are wanted on a boiler ; they are screwed in, one at high 
water and the other at low water level. By turning on these 
taps it is easy to see whether the water is within these limits, 
but the precise height cannot be ascertained. The gauge-glass 
is therefore much preferable. 

Whistles are fitted to boilers only as ornaments. They are 
quite useless j as signals, except such as can be given by word 
of mouth, are not required in working model engines. These 
attachments are made to sound by allowing the steam to act 
as the breath does in common whistles. 

A chapter is devoted to force-pumps, used to force water 
into the boiler to make up for that converted into steam, and 
conveyed through the cylinder. These pumps are actuated 
by an eccentric on the crank-shaft, and at every revolution of 
the crank, throw a small quantity of water into the boiler. 
When we consider how much water is evaporated to make the 
quantity of steam used for each revolution of the cylinder, we 
may arrive at an idea of the work required of a force pump. 
Practically the water to be injected at each stroke is too small 
to be dealt with, unless a large cylinder has to be supplied. 


The only way to work a force-pump for a model satisfactorily 
is by gearing, so that a stroke of the plunger is performed 
about once to each hundred revolutions of the crank. 

A better plan for feeding small boilers is by hand. The 
force pump is attached to the boiler in the usual way, but tiot 
connected to the engine. The plunger is worked by a hand- 
lever, and when it is seen that water is wanted in the boiler, 
a few strokes of the lever will suffice. 

Governors ate used to control the speed of the engine. 
Without any such contrivance the engine runs at a speed cot- 
responding to the work it has to do. The heavier the load 
the slower the speed, and immediately that the load is 
decreased the speed increases. A governor consists of a pair 
of balls, which are attached to arms pivoted to an axis revolved 
by the engine. The faster the speed the greater is the centri- 
fugal force of the balls, and by connecting these with a valve, 
called a throttle-valve, in the steam -pipe, the supply of steam 
is reduced as the speed increases. By this means a uniform 
rate of speed is attained, irrespective of the steam pressure or 
the duty demanded of the engine. 



N this chapter we have space for some brief notes on 
those processes incidental to the work already de- 
scribed, which have been mentioned but not explained in 
previous chapters. 

Drills and Drilling, — Small drills, those under |in. diameter 
are generally made by filing the round steel wire slightly taper- 
ing and then spreading the small end with a single blow from a 
tolerably heavy hammer. Using a light hammer, and spread- 
ing by a series of gentle taps, will effectually spoil the steel. 
There is no occasion to anneal the steel for hammering, pro- 
viding it is moderately soft For all drills up to one-eighth of 
an inch diameter, the steel should not be forged, as the bulk 
of the metal is too small to heat any predetermined temper- 
ature with any degree of certainty. Very small drills can be 
made from good sewing-needles, which are of convenient form 
to be readily converted into a drill. Firstly, the needle must 
be made sufficiently soft for working by heating till it a» 
sumes a deep blue colour. The extreme end may be made 
quite soft, and filed slightly tapering to a trifle less than the size 
of the hole to be drilled. The point is now spread out by a 
sharp blow of a hammer — not by a series of gentle taps, which 
would cause the metal to crack — and filed up to shape. The 
thickness of the drill across the flattened part should be about 
a third the diametrical measurement. Finish up the end on a 
strip of Arkansas stone a file being too coarse for such small 
work. K 


Drills should have their cutting ends shaped so that the 
cutting edges form an angle of from 90^ to 120^. The blade 
of a drill about ^in. diameter should be about one-fifth of its 
diameter at that part where it is widest, and the point should 
be thinner down to about one-eighth. The thinner the point 
the easier will the drill enter. 

It is the great difficulty of getting such a very snail piece of 
steel Jo an exact predetermined degree of temperature — hot 
enough to harden, but not so hot that it is burned— which 
makes the manufacture of these small tools uncertain ; and 
this is abundantly proved by the fact that of half-a-dozen 
drills made from the same wire, thereby assuring uniformity of 
quality in the material, it often happens that some are exceed- 
ingly good and others of no use whatever, the difference being 

caused by the manipulation during hardening. This does not 
apply to drills or other steel things which are of sufficient size 
to show, by the colour of their surface, how hot they are ; but 
it is the tiny pieces that are difficult to manage, which, by the 
contact with the flame, are immediately rendered white hot. 

By heating the drill and piunging it into the body of a 
ballow candle, the hardening will be effected, but the steel will 
not be rendered so hard that it crumbles away under pressure 
in use. Thus, in one operation, the drill will be hardened and 
tempered. Instead of tallow, white wax, sealing wax, and 
such like materials, are adapted to the purpose. There is 
another method which finds favour with some : it is to envelop 
the thin point of the drill in a metal casing, and so get a bulk 
of metal which can be heated to a nicety, the drill inside 
being, of course, raised to the same temperature as the sur- 
rounding metal. The whole is then plunged into oil or water. 
Still there is the difficulty of tempering to overcome, though 
the danger of burning is avoided ; burnt steel is of no use for 
tools. The best plan is to exercise the greatest possible care 

FILING. 131 

not to over-heat the drill, and harden and temper in one 
operation by plunging into tallow 

Filing. — This is an art not to be learned without consider- 
able practice. The file must be used with long, slow and 
steady strokes, taken right from point to tang, moderate pres- 
sure being brought to bear during the forward stroke. The 
file must be relieved of all pressure during the return stroke, 
otherwise the teeth will be liable to be broken off, just in the 
same manner that the point of a turning tool would be broken 
if the lathe were turned the wrong way. It is not necessary to 
lift the file altogether off the work, but it should only have its 
bare weight pressing during the back stroke. One of the chief 
difficulties in filing flat is that the arms have a tendency to 
move in arcs from the joints, but this will be conquered by 
practice. Work which has been filed up properly will present 
a flat, even surface, with the file marks running in straight 
parallel lines. Each stroke of the file will have been made to 
obtain a like end, but work which has been done by a careless 
or an inexperienced workman will often bear evidence that 
each stroke of the file was made without regard to any others, 
and the surface will be made up of a number of facets, varying 
in size, shape and position. Those who have never received 
any practical instruction in the use of files, generally have a 
bad habit of pressing heavily on the tool, during both forward 
and backward stroke, and, at the same time, work far too 
quickly. These habits, combined, will almost invariably spoil 
whatever is operated on, producing surfaces more or less 
rounding, but never flat. 

The position of the vice at which we are to operate is a 
most important point to be decided before commencing our 
filing proper. The vice should be fixed at the correct height, 
and so that the work held in the jaws will lie level. As to 
what is really the correct height, some slight difference of 


opinion exists. This is, probably, owing to the fact that the 
height of people varies. For filing general work, the top of 
the vice jaws should be placed so as to be level with the 
elbow of the workman, which will be found to range from 
4oin. to 44in. from the floor; therefore 42in. may be con- 
sidered as an average height best suited for all heights of 
workmen, when the vice is to be permanently fixed. 

If the work to be filed is small and delicate, requiring simply 
a movement of the arms, or right hand and arm alone, the 
vice should be higher, not only in order that the workman 
may more closely scrutinise the work^ but that he may be able 
to stand more erect. If the work to be filed is heavy and 
massive, requiring great muscular effort, its surface should be 
below the elbow-joint, as the operator stands further from his 
work, with his feet separated from loin. to 3oin., and his knees 
somewhat bent, thus lowering his stature ; besides, in this class 
of work it is desirable to throw the weight of the body upon 
the file, to make it penetrate, and thus, with a comparative 
fixedness of the arms, depend largely upon the momentum of 
the body to drive the file. 

Thus, in fixing the height of the vice, the nature of the work 
and the stature of the operator should be considered. Having 
the vice fixed properly, the correct position to assume, when 
filing, is the next consideration. The left foot should be 
about 6in. to left and 6in. to front of the vice leg ; the right 
foot being about 3oin. to front, that is to say, join, away 
from the board in a straight line with the vice post. This 
position gives command over the work, or, rather, over the 
tool, and is at once characteristic of a good vice-man. The 
file must be grasped firmly in the right hand, by the handle. 

The operation of filing an iron casting just home from the 
foundry would be preceded by thoroughly brushing the cast- 
ing with a hard brush, so as to remove all the loose sand. 

FILING. 133 

Then take an old file and file away steadily at the skin till 
you come to a surface of pure metal. Having by then re- 
moved those parts which spoil files, the old file, with which 
but slow progress is made, can be changed for a better pne. 
The best, as well as the most economical, will be one which 
has been used for filing brass till it has become too much 
blunted for that material. Such a file is in first-class condition 
for working on cast iron after its sandy skin has been removed, 
and when worn out on that, it will serve first-rate for steel 

When the object is to remove a mass of metal^ the file 
requires to be as large as can be conveniently handled upon 
the work. For machinists' use this need not, for the largest 
work, exceed a 20-in. file, which, to make it bite well and take 
a fair cut, will require all the power a man can exert continu- 
ously. The cut of the file should be, for roughing wrought 
iron, a bastard cut; for steel, a second cut; and for brass, a 
rough cut 

To obtain the greatest amount of duty, the file, if a large 
one, requires applying on the forward stroke with all the power 
the operator can put on it ; while, if a small one, with as much 
power as can be without danger of breaking the file. The 
end of the file-handle should rest against the palm of the hand, 
so that the file is pushed, and not dragged. The left hand 
must just hold the point of the file lightly, so as to guide it, 
and, when taking the forward cut, a fairly heavy pressure 
must be applied, proportionate to the size of the file in use 
. and the work being done. 

On the forward stroke, the front foot should be almost 
entirely relieved of the operator's weight, which will fall on the 
file ; while on the back stroke, the front foot should take most 
of the weight, so that the file may be relieved. The file strokes 
should not all be made parallel one to another, but first at 
one angle and then at another, so that the file marks will cross 


and recross each other, which enables the tool to cut easier. 
The speed of the file may be as quick as it can be pushed, 
providing the file is pressed to the work with all the weight 
possible, or if a small one, with all its strength will stand. 

When it is necessary to file up a small surface — say 2 in. or 
3 in. square — the file must be applied in continually changing 
directions, not always at right angles to chops of the vice. In 
that case, though the work might be made perfectly straight in 
that direction, yet there would not be any means Of assuring a 
like result on the part lying parallel to the jaws. When the 
surface is fairly flat, the file should be applied diagonally both 
ways ; thus any hollow or high places, otherwise unobservable, 
will be at once seen, without the aid of straight edges. This 
method of crossing the file cuts from comer to comer is 
recommended in all cases. 

The file should invariably travel right across the work, using 
the whole length of the file, not only an inch or so as is often 
the case. When in use the file must be held quite firmly, yet 
not so rigid that the operator cannot feel the work as it pro- 
gresses. The sense of touch is brought into use to a far 
greater extent than the inexperienced would imagine, and a 
firm grasp of the tool, at the same time preserving a light 
touch to feel the work, is an essential qualification for a good 

For filing to shape, a smaller file must be used, so that even 
while removing the mass of the metal, the shape of the work 
can be readily observed by a slight lateral motion of the file, 
without entirely removing it from the work, or without stop- 
ping the file strokes. In filing to fit lies the greatest art of 
filing, for in this it is necessary that the file be of tme outline, 
and to be so applied that it touches the work at the required 
spot only. 

Hardening and Tempering Steel* — If we heat a piece of 


cast steel to redness and plunge it into clean cold watei 
until its temperature is reduced to that of the water, the result 
will be that the steel will be hardened. The degree of the 
hardness will depend upon the quality of the steel, the tem- 
perature to which it was heated, and to a small degree upon 
the temperature of the water in which it was cooled. In any 
event the operation will be termed " hardening." If we reheat 
the steel, a softening process will accompany the increasing 
temperature, until upon becoming again red-hot it will assume 
its normal softness, and if allowed to cool in the atmosphere 
the effects of the first hardening will be entirely removed. 

The soft steels, approaching more in their nature to wrought 
iron, are exceedingly difficult to harden and temper to a uniform 
degree, because of the difficulty experienced in producing them 
of uniform grade. Many kinds of these steels are made of so 
low a grade as to make it difficult to determine the line of 
demarcation separating them from wrought iron. 

As a rule, the steel that shows a fracture of fine dull grain, 
the face of the fracture being comparatively level, is of better 
quality than that showing a coarse or granulated surface: 
brightness denoting hardness, and fibrousness toughness. 

The higher the grade of steel, the lower the temperature at 
which it will harden, and the harder it will be if Cooled in 
water from a given temperature. 

The part of the tool required to be hardened must be 
heated through, and heated evenly, but must on no account 
be overheated. The tool must be finished by sudden cooling, 
and if this does not give to the steel a fine grain and silky 
texture — if, after the cooling, were it broken in the hardened 
part, the fracture should show a coarse grain and dull 
colour, instead of a fine grain and glossy lustre — the tool is 
spoiled. The special dangers to be avoided in hardening 
each kind of tool must be learned by experience. Some tools 


will warp if they are not plunged into the water in a certain 

A piece of hardened steel heated slightly, and allowed to 
cool again, becomes tempered. It suddenly changes from 
brittle glass to supple whalebone, and in the process of chang- 
ing its nature, fortunately it changes colour, so that the work- 
man can judge by the hue of the colour the extent of the 
elasticity which it has acquired, and can give to each tool the 
particular degree of temper which is most adapted to its 
special purpose. After the steel is hardened, if we polish one 
of its surfaces and slowly reheat it, that surface will assume 
various tints, beginning with a pale yellow and ending in a 
blue with a green tinge, each colour appearing as the steel 
attains a definite temperature; by the appearance of the 
colours we are informed of the temperature of the steel, or in 
other words, how far, or to what extent the resoftening has 

The various colours which tempered steel successively passes 
are as follows : straw, gold, chocolate, purple, violet and blue. 
Of course, in passing from one colour to another, the steel 
passes through the intermediate tints. It really passes through 
aa infinite series of colours, of which the six above mentioned 
are arbitrarily selected as convenient stages. The elasticity 
of tempered steel is acquired at the expense of its hardness. 
It is supposed that the maximum of hardness and elasticity 
combined is obtained by tempering down to a straw colour. 

In tempering steel, regard must be had to the quality most 
essential in the special tool to be tempered A turning tool 
may be required to be very hard, and is often taken out of the 
water hot enough to temper itself down to a degree so slight 
that no colour is perceptible, whilst a spring is required to be 
very elastic, and may be tempered down to a blue. 

Lacquering. — Properly-lacquered brass work will retain its 


colour, and resist the action of the atmosphere for a long time> 
hence the practice of always lacquering work which should 
retain a good appearance. The process is rather difficult to 
execute on large surfaces, where the tyro will find the lacquer 
continually getting a smeary look. 

The process is only to preserve the bright surface of the 
metal by coating it with a layer of varnish. The colour of 
this varnish may be modified to suit the work to which it has 
to be applied. Lacquer contains either seed-lac or shell-lac^ 
hence its name. Seed-lac is the gum in its original form, and 
when it has been purified and prepared by moulding into thin 
sheets it is called sheU-laa This material may be bleached so 
as to become almost colourless ; but in that condition it is not 
so strong or efifective for lacquering purposes. With regard to 
applying the lacquer, it should be understood that much de- 
pends on the condition of the work. Perfect cleanliness and 
a tolerable polish are necessary to insure a successful applica- 
tion of the lacquer. The work must be heated to about the 
temperature of boiling water before lacquering, and this must 
be laid on evenly with a camel-hair brush. 

With regard to the lacquer itself, a good pale gold lacquer b 
made by dissolving 50Z. of seed-lac in half a gallon of methy- 
lated spirits, and then adding a small quantity — ^less than half 
an ounce — of red sanders : yellow is made by mixing turmeric 
with lac varnish ; deep gold is made with dragon's blood and 
lac varnish ; red contains a larger proportion of dragon's blood. 
Lacquers suffer a chemical change through heat and light, and 
for this reason must be kept in a cool place, and away fi-om the 
light. The brushes used should always be carefully washed out 
in methylated spirits, and be kept scrupulously clean. 

Lacquering is done in two ways, called cold lacquering and 
hot lacquering. By the former, a little lacquer being taken on^ 
a common camel-hair brush is laid carefully^ and evenly over 


the work, which is placed in an oven or oq a hot stove ; the 
heat from this continued only a minute or two is sufficient to 
set the lacquer, and the work is finished. Care must be taken 
not to have the work too hot so as to bum the lacquer, nor yet 
too cold, for in this case the lacquer will not be thoroughly set. 
By the second method, the work is heated first to about the 
temperature of boiling water, and the lacquer quickly brushed 
over it in this state, the work being afterwards placed in an 
oven for a minute or so. If very small, the article will require 
this, because it will have parted with most of its heat to the 
lacquer; if heavy, it will retain sufficient to perfect the process 
without being placed in the oven. The greatest difficulty is 
to know the exact degree of heat, and this knowledge is only 
attained by eacperience — so different is the nature of the ma^ 
terials, the quality of the different lacquers, and the effect to be 
produced. When work is newly lacquered the lacquer is soft, 
and the work ought to be exposed to a gentle heat for a short 
time to evaporate the alcohol and harden the lacquer. Small 
gas cooking-stoves are very suitable for this purpose, and it 
will be found that after newly lacquered work has been baked 
for a short time, any little unevenness in the laying on the 
lacquer will be much improved. 

Soldering and Brazil^, — In using ordinary " soft " or pewter 
solder for uniting surfaces that are already tinned — such as 
tinned iron plate and tinned copper— resin is the best and 
cheapest flux \ but when surfaces of iron, brasSj or copper, 
that have not been tinned are to be joined by soft solder, 
soldering fluid is by far the most convenient flux. Resin 
possesses this important advantage over soldering fluid, that 
it does not induce subsequent corrosion of the article to which 
it is applied. When acid fluxes have been applied to anything 
that is liable to rust, it is necessary to see that they are 
thoroughly washed off with clean warm water, and the articles 


carefully and thoroughly dried. Oil and powdered resin mixed 
together make a good flux for tinned articles. The mixture 
can be applied with a small brush, or a swab tied to the end 
of a stick. 

For soft solders, the best flux is a soldering fluid which may 
be prepared by saturating hydrochloric acid with zinc. The 
addition of a little salammoniac improves it. To prepare 
this^ put \ pint of muriatic acid (also called spirits of salts and 
hydrocliloric acid) into a glass, and add small pie:es of clean 
Nzinc, which will be dissolved by the acid. Let it stand for 
several hours, till the acid has ceased to act; then add a 
small quantity of water — say a wine-glass full^ — when ebulli- 
tion will re-commence. Let it stand undisturbed for a few 
hours, and again add a small quantity of water. Continue 
this until the quantity of water added equals that of the acid 
{\ pint). When all action has ceased, add i oz. of salam- 
moniac; let it stand 12 hours, then decant the clear liquid 
into a bottle, which should be kept well fastened when not in 
use. Throw away the sediment A solution of phosphoric 
acid in alcohol makes, it is said, an excellent soldering fluid, 
which has some advantages over chloride of zinc 

When uniting work of copper, iron, brass, etc, the solder 
generally used is a fusible brass, and the process is called 
brazing. The work to be soldered is prepared by filing or 
scraping perfectly clean the edges or parts to be united. The 
joints are then put into proper position and bound securely 
together with binding wire or clamps ; the granulated spelter 
solder and powdered borax are mixed in a cup with a very 
little water and spread with a strip of sheet metal or a small 
spoon along the joint to be united. The work is then placed 
upon a clear fire and heated gradually to evaporate the water 
used with the solder and borax, and also to drive off the water 
contained in the crystallised borax, which causes it to boil up 


with a frothy appearance. If the work is heated hastily the 
boiling of the borax may displace the solder, and for this 
reason it is better to roast the borax before mixing with the 
solder. When the borax ceases to boil the heat is then in- 
creased, and when the metal becomes a faint red the borax 
fuses like glass, and shortly after, as the heat of the metal is 
increased to a bright red, the solder also fuses, which is in- 
dicated by a small blue flame, from the burning of the zinc. 
Just at this time the work should be jarred slightly by being 
tapped lightly with the poker or hammer^ to put the solder in 
vibration and cause it to run into the joint For some work 
there is no necessity to tap it, for the solder is absorbed into 
the joint without 

I N D E X. 



ACTION of Oscir ating Valves . . 97 
of Slide Valves .. 1x5 
• of Steam in Cylinder 6 

Advantageof High Speed •• •• 70 

^olipile a 

Agricultural Engine •• ■•• .. 19 

Air-chamber in Pump 106 

Allowance for Friction .. .. 5 

BACK Pressure Valve .. .. xo6 
of Horizontal Engine 35 
Balls for Valves .. .. xo6 

Barrel for Pump xo8 

Beam Engine .. ••.-.• ., '®» ^9 

Engine with Vertical Boiler 19 

Bed-plates, Iron $6 

Belt-dmm, Chucking ox 

Bending Tube 87 

Bent Cranks 77t7^ 

Bit for Boring Cylinder .. ..26 

Blow-ofif Cocks XX4 

Boilers ^ 

and Engines Combined . . x8 

for Tank Engine .. ..119 

Bolt for Link Motion Connections . . 64 

for Quadrant Plate .. .. 64 

Boring and Turning a Cvlinder . . 75 

Crosshead Guides .. ..58 

Cylinders .. •• ti|26 
-^— ^^ Cylinders in Lathe . . • . 49 

Cylinders with Flat Bit :.. 49 

Bracket for Rocking Lever .. ..87 
Brasses for Crank Shaft .. ..65 
Brass Tube for Boilers .. •• i2x 

Brazing X38 

Brazing Boilers . . .. «• ..123 
Brown Paper Joints X14 

Cap for Brasses 66 
Capacity of Boilers .. .. 9 
Cast Iron. Filing .. .« .. X32 

Castings tor Boilers X22 

Prices of xg 

Chamber of Throttle Valve .. ,. loi 
Channels for Lubricating .. ..65 
Charging Small Boilers .. .. 3x 
Chattering in Turning.. » .. 8x 
Chipping Pieces.. .« .. .. 56 
 Spigots.. «, „ ..84 
Chucking Belt Drum .. ^ .. 8x 

by Soldering .. « ..87 

Cylinder Cover •• ^ 8a 


Clamping Bolt fior Qaadrant . • • . 64 

Cock-plug, Grinding lox 

Cold Lacqnering 137 

Colours for Temperinc .. .136 
Combined En^^e and Boiler .. 18 

Connecting Rod , 44i 6x 

Rod and Crank Pin.. •. 40 

Rod for Force Pump .. X05 

Copper Boiler 134 

Crank Arm 39 

Bearing 39 

End of Horizontal Engine 33 

First Used 3 

for Toy Engine .. ..28 

Pin and Connecting Rod .. 40 

— Shaft 39 

Cross Section of Force Pump X04, 109 

Tubes in Boilen .. « 136 

Crosshead 89 

and Valve Rod .. ..63 

for Valve Rod ,. .. 96 

Guides, Boring .. ,. 5? 

Pin 88 

-Section.. - .. .. 6x 

Cutter-block for Cro«ae|id Guides 58 
Cylinder and Pillar Showing Steam 

Ports .. .,25 

Cover. Best Means of 

Chucking St 

— End of Horizontal Engine 33 

DETERMINING Length of Pis- 
ton Rod 88,91 
Diagonal Force Pump .. 103 

Die and Link 63 

Dimensions of Tiny Models . • • . x x 
Distance Pieces of Guide Bars •• 74 

Donkey Pump 102 

Double Acting Qrlinders .. .. X4 
Cylinder Engines .. ..13 

Cylinder Launch Engine . • 68 

Cinder Vertical Engine . . 13 

Drills and Drilling X29 

Drilling Holes for Rivets .. •• xas 
Dummy Pnmpt.. .. •• .. X03 
Duty of an Enf^e 5 

E^ ARLY Uses of Governors . . 98 
Uses of Regulators 98 
^ Eccentrics and Strap 4X, 45, 6« 

Rods — 61 

Setting.. X17 

ShMVM, Fitting ^ .. 93 




Sccentric Sheaves, Turning.. .. 40 

Straps, Fitting .. ..93 

Economy of Weight and Space in 

Oscillating Enjgine 47 

Effect of Steam in Cylinders . . . . 6 

Efficiency of Pumps X03 

Elasticity of Steam 9 

Elevation of Governor 99 

of Horizontal Engine 36, 4a 

of Steam Tap and Throttle 

Valve loi 

of Tank Engine .. ..7a 

Elliptical Throws to Crank .. .. 78 
Engme and Boiler Combined .. 18 

for Model Boats . , . . 48 

T hree-quarter Horse-power 70 

End for Boiler 12a 

of Oscillating Engine .. 50 

of Three-Throw Crank . . 78 

Equalising Pressure in Pumps . . 106 

Erecting ..113 

Escape Valve of Pump 106 

EvaporatingCapacity of aBoiler .. 7 

Exhaust Cap n6 

Expansive Force of Steam .. .. 9 

FACING Slide-Vaive Box .. 85 
Feeding Boilers by Hand .. 139 
Filing 13X 

Finished Crank with Elliptic Throws 78 
Fire Box and Ends of Boiler. . . . xas 

Fire-engine, Savery's 2 

fitting Brasses in Crosshead . . 46 

Crank Bearings .. ..74 

Eccentric Sheaves and 

Straps 93 

Fixed Cylinders 13 

Fixing Eccentric Sheave to Shaft . . qa 
Flat Bit for Boring Cylinders .. 49 

Flues and Tubes m Boilers .. 7,123 

Fly-wheel. Turning 80 

Fbrgings tor Piston Rings .. ..86 

Founder's Charges 17 

Friction, Allowance for .. .. 5 

-in Models . . . . « 3 

Front of Horizontal Engine . . ..34 
of Launch Engme .. .,56 

of Oscillating Engine ., 24 

Fuel for Small Boilers z^ 

GAUGE Cocks Z28 
Gear, Reversing .. ..63 
Geanng-down Pwnps ..103 
Glands and Stuffing-Boxes .. ••53 

Screwed ■• 

Studded .. A 

Governors .. ., ., ..99 

Early Uses of ., ..98 

 Pendulum 99 

Principles of 98 

Grease-cup Construction .. ..66 
Great Britain S.S. Engines, Model of xi 
Grinding Piston Rings to Fit . . . . 87 
Plug to Cock xoi 

-——-Sliding Blocks to Fit .. 91 
Guide Block Jo 

ARDENING and Tempering 

Steel 134 

Heat and Pressure Propor- 
tionate a 

Heating Surface of Boilers .. .. 9 

Heros' Engine % 

High Speed Advantageous . . . . 70 

Holding a File 132 

Hollow Spheres 5JD7, 107 

Horizontal Boilers .. .. 6,18,124 

Engines .. .. 141 15, 3* 

Engines with Boilers .. 18 

Section of Cylinder . . . . 59 

, Section of Force Pump 104, 109 

Horse-power Defined 5 

Hot Lacquering 137 

How Steam Drives an Oscillating 
Engine 53 

INEXPENSIVE Form of Engine xa 
Inside Lap 116 
Injectors xoz 

Iron Bed-plates 36 

Castings, How lo File .. X3a 


OINTS for Cylinder Cover 

— for Plunger ., 

— — in Vaive Rod . . 



Lagging for Cylinder.. •.. xig 

Lap of Slide Valve j 16 

Exhaust 116 

Negative xi6 

Lathe Indispensable ax 

Smted for Model Engine 

Making 2% 

Launch Engines 13 

Lead of Slide Valve 115 

Length of Piston-rod, Determining 88, 91 
Lever for Slide Valve and Pump .. 96 

Safety Valves 29 

Lift of Pump Valves .. .. ..107 

Link and Die 63 

Coupling Pin 65 

Motion 63 

Motion Connecting Bolt .. 64 

Radius of 63 

Locomotive Boilers 123 

Engines 14 

Long Ports for Quick Action . . 65 

Longitudinal Section of CylindGL . 83 

MAKING a Crank Shaft .. 76 
Piston Head .. 51 
Small Drills .. 129 

— — Spheres 105 

Steam Passages .. .. 84 

Marine Engines \a 

Markine Centres for Crank Pin .. 79 

Materials for Boilers ..^ ,. ,. xax 

for Models x6 

Miscellaneous Items .. .. ., it) 




Mitre Valvet xi2 

Model Boats, Engine for .. ..68 
Motion, Link 63 

NARROW Seatings for BaU 
Valves 106 

Negative Lap . . .. .. 116 

Newcomen^ Engine .. .. .. 2t3 

Newly DesignedEnginea •• ..33 

OIL Chambers 59 
Cup 75 
Joints 114 

Oscillating Engines .. .. X3)i.4 

Valves, Action of .. ..37 

Outside Lap 1x6 

Overrunning Resistance .. •• 70 

Pair of Cylinders .. .. 48 
Passage of Steam in Slide 

Valve Engme 38 

Patterns for Castings 17 

Pendulum Governor 99 

Penn's Engine, Model oi .. .. iz 
Pillar and Cylinder showing Steam- 

Pm for Crosshead 

fox Link Coupling .. ..6; 

Piston % 

for Toy En|;ine .. .. a8 

Head, Making .. ,. 51 

Ring, Forgings .. ..86 

Rod 44 

Plain Bent Crank 78 

Plan of Horizontal Engine . . 36, 42 

ot Launch Engine .. ..55 

of Tank Engine ,. ..72 

Plate, Quadrant 64 

Plummer Block . . .. .. ..74 

Plunger for Pump .. .. .. zo8 

Joint .. .. „ .. X04 

Portable Engines .. .. X2, 13 

Position for Filing X3z 

Power of an Engme 5 

of Small Cylinders .. .. 4 
Pressure and Heat Proportionate .. 8 
Preventing Chattering m Turning . . 8z 

Prices of Bolts X9 

Brass Tube I2X 

Castings 19 

Complete Engines . . . . ax 

Primogenitor of Modem Steam 

En^es 2x 

Principles of Governor .. ..98 
Pumicestone for Grinding Bearings. 80 
Pomp and Slide Valve Lever .. 96 
Pattmg Together 1x3 

Quick Action Ports 



RADIUS of Lmk 63 
Red Lead Joints .. .. X14 
Reducing Scale Drawings . 43 
Regularity of High Speed . . . . 70 
Regulators, Early Uses of .. ..98 

Return Pipe to Pump lud 

Reversing Gear 63 

Riveting Boiler . . 

Rocking Lever Brackets . . . . 97 
Rounded Shoulders, Strong . . . . 79 

SAFETY Valve for Toy En|;ine aS, 30 
Sand for Grinding Bearmgs . . bo 
Savory's Engine .. .. 2 

Scale Drawings, Reducing . . . . 43 

Screwed Glands 53 

Seatings for Ball Valves . . . . xo6 

in Bed Plate 73 

Section of Crosshead .. ..ox 

of Cylinder .. .. 37i 43 

of Cylinder Grease Cup . . 66 

of Force Pump . . . . X07 

of Governor 99 

-— of Launch Engine . . . . 60 

— of Safety Valve . . • . 29 

of Steam Tap and Throttle 

Valve xox 

through Slide Valve . . 84 

Semi-Portable Engines . . 16, ao 

Sets of Castings ax 

Setting Eccentrics 1x7 

Slide Valve on Rod . . . . 1x7 

Sheet*brass for Foundation Plates. . 36 
Shrinkafi;e of Castings . . . . ... 17 

Side of Connecting Rod . . . . 44 

Horizontal Engine .. ., 33 

Launch Engine •• . . 57 

Oscillating Engine . . 24, 50 

Silver Soldering Boilers .. .. X23 
Simple Cylinder.. .. \, ..26 

Toy Engine 24 

Single Acting Cylinders . . 14, 27, 47 
Size of Lathe Suited for Model En- 
gine Making 23 

Skeleton Plan of Horizontal Engine 3 ) 

Slide Valve .. -. 38 

and Pump Lever .. ..96 

Engines ,. .. ,. x^ 

Making 3d 

Sections 84 

Sliding Blocks 90 

Small Drills X29 

Snap for Finishing Riveta .. .. X25 
Soft Soldering Boilers.. •• •• 123 

Soldering • .. .. X39 

Solid Cranks 76 

Spheres, Making X05 

Spherical Boilers 6 

Valves 105 

Spirts, Chipping 84 

Sprmg Safety Valve .. .. •• 29 
Square Shoulders, Weak .. ••79 

Stand for Toy Engine 30 

Stationary Engines 13 

Steam and Water Same Temperature 8 
— — Chest Uxuofi .. ^ .. S4 




Steam Cock .. — •• .. xoo 

Lap 1x6 

Tap and ThrotUe Valve .. xox 

Wanted to Drive an Engine 7 

Ways in Toy Engine . . as 

Ways in Cylinder .. ..115 

Steel, Hardening and Tempering .. 134 
Straps and Eccentrics . . . . 4Zf 45f m 
Strong Ronnd Shoulders ••79 

Studded Glands 53 

StofBmg Boxes and Glands .. .. S) 

TEMPERATURE and Pressure 

Proportionate .. .. 8 

Tempering Steel .. •• X34 

Testing Boilers 7 

Thickness of Copper for Boiler . . x 

Three-Throw Bent Orank .. .• 7^ 

Three-quarter Horse-Power Engine 70 

Throttle Valve 99 

Valve and Steam Tap ., xoi 

Throw of Crank 39 

Tiniest Models ix 

Tools for Beginners ai 

for Making Spheres .. io5 

Hardening X34 

Top of Connecting Rod ••44 

Toy Engine xr,24 

Transverse Section of Cylinder . . 8a 

Tri blet Tube for Lining Oylinders . . a6 

True Joints for Cylinder Covers . . 83 

Trunnicm for Oscillating Cylinder . . so 

Tube Bending 87 

Tnbes and Floes in Boilen .. •• e 


Tabular Boilers 7 

Turning and Boring C]^ders .. '75 

Turning Crank Pins 79 

■^— ^^— Eccentrics •• •. 40 

Nine-inch Fly-wheel .. 80 

Spheres 106 

UNION for Steam Chest .. ^ 
Using s File 131 

VALVBand Valve Face.. .. 65 
Face of Oscillating 
Engine 5) 

— «— Rod and Grosshead .. 63, 96 

Rod and Joint .. .. 45 

Spindle 46 

Varieties of Modd Engines .. .. 13 
Varying Power from Lank Motion . . 63 
Verucu Boilers .. 6, 19, laa 

Engines X3, 14 

Section of Cylinders .. 59 

Section of Force Pumps 104,109 

Vice for Filing 131 

WATER and Steam same Tem- 
perature 8 
Heater ., .. xoa 

Watt's Engine 3 

Weak Square Shoulders •• .. 79 
Weighted Safety Valve .. .• ag 

Whistles lad 

Work Done by Feed Pomp .. .. 105 
Working Drewings Necessary .. 43 


Stationers' Hall Coukt, London, E.C. 


€aMa^nt at 

Scientific, Technical and 
Industrial Books. 






















Comprising Tables, Formuke, Rales, and Data : A Handy Book of Reference 
for Daily Use in Engineering Practice. By D. Kinnbar Clark, M. Inst. C.JB., 
Fourth Edition. Small 8vo, 700 pp., bound in flexible Leather Cover, rounded 
comers Q/Q 


BRASS, LEAD, Tin, Zinc— STRENGTH OF Timber.— Strength of Cast Iron.— 


COPPER, LEAD, &c.— Resistance of stones and other building Materials.— 
Riveted joints in boiler Plates.— Boilbr Shells.— Wire Ropes and Hemp 
Ropes.- Chains and Chain Cables.— Framing^— Hardness of Metals, Alloys, and 
Stones.— Labour of Animals.— Mechanical Principles.— Gravity and Fall op 
Bodies.— ACCELERATING and Retarding Forces.- Mill Gearing, Shafting. Ac- 
Transmission OF Motive Power.— Heat.— Combustion : Fuels.- Wariung, Venti. 


TRAMWAYS.— Steam Ships.— Pumping Steam Engines and pumps.— Coal Gas, Gas 
Engines, &c.— Air in Motion.— Compressed Air.— Hot Air Engines.— Watbr 
power.— Speed of Cutting Tools.— Colours.— electrical engineering. 

" Mr. Clark manifests what is an innate perception of what is likely to be useful in a pocket- 
book, and he is really unrivalled in the art of icondensation. It is very difficult to hit upon any 
mechanical engineering subject concerning which this work supplies fno Unformation, and the 
excellent index at the end adds to its utility. In one word, it is an exceedingly handy and Sklent 
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" It would be found difficult to compress more matter within a sfanilar compass, or produce a 
book of 6^ pages which should be more compact or convenient for pocket reference. . . , Will 
be appreciatedby mechamical engineers of all dawes. "—Prmeticai SMgineer. 

L. a 



Campniing Modern Rulo, Tiiblei, uid Dun. For EnriiKen, Millmiihti, 
lod Boils Makers; Tr»l Uskers, Muhiniiu, (lul Mct^Worken ; Im ud 
Bnu Foniiden, &c. B; W. S. Hdttoh, Civil and Mechimica! Enginear, 
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ReviKd, with Additions. In One buidiome Voluipc. medium Bvo, ttroMlr 
boond. Uml Putiiskid. ISTO 

V TM Author tuving comfUtd IMa latS Data for his atniai in a gnat 
til moitm mfiituTimg work, ami hatitit /atmd hU HOla iitnmiiy nu/nl, 
\UipiMiih tkim—niiuid to dat4—Mimtg Ihat a ftattital work, luitti to 

ii^^M3il !iiai!w >SiffiilrMuifMSo?l«li^^ 

■- Tto ishnBB b in UMt^tr «m!|^ MuuSth •wksn^ iwlB. nHnonnila. avl 
"Thvta^HBadDBUpncb^tbatllkalytabanqiilndlnprulica. . . . Th* walk Ihidi 

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paaiMl T i m ' a copr."— AfldfM/ Stifliutr, 


Compriiing a Treati« on Modern Bnginei and BoiIeK, Marine, Lacomotive, 
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  Recent Ptacti.  - " - - 

And other Bnr 

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:» S. HuTTOM, 

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pnhcBrive Ke)> lo the Boan) of Tnde and olher Ejuiminii 

of CompatencT in Hodeiii Michiiniciil EnEineetinE. By Waltek S. li 
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bi EnriaeerL" Ac with Dpvank of *io Illiutruions. Sixth . 
Revindud Enlaijed. 

BV ThU Work ii Ots 
Hahagbe'j Hahpbook." It 
taina, tikt its prtdtaaor, a qnai 
but eotUcUd iy On Author far 

Thi Information ii finoi 

valut to aU tngagtd in dtiigntn, 


fat EnriaeerL" Ac V^th Dp*ank of *io Illiutruians. Sixth Edition, 
Revind and Enlaieed. Hedium ftvo, 560 pp-, BtronEly bound. 

O-at PMbUihdd. 18/0 
IV Thii Work ii OtstgnU ru a tompmion to Ihi Autkm'i "WoiKI' 
add'* Hahpbook." It pouttitx many nam and otiginai jtaXum, and con- 

Cidtatsor, a qnaiUty of matltr not originally inttndtd far publication 
Iki Author for kb am* uutntkt construction of a grnl tarii^ 0/ 




A Practical Handbook for Engineers, Boiler-Makers, and Steam Users. 
Containing a large Collection of Rales and Data relating to Recent Practice 
in the Design, Construction, and Working of all Kinds of Stationary, Loco- 
motive, and Marine Steam-Boilers. -By Walter S. Hutton, Civil and 
Mechanical Engineer, Author of "The Works' Manager's Handbook," "The 
Practical Engineer's Handbook," &c. With upwards of 500 Illustrations. 
Third Edition, Revised and much Enlarged, medium 8vo, cloth . . 1 8/0 
■^^ This Work is issutd in continuation of the Series of Handbooks written 

SI the Author, vix. ;— -"The Works' Manager's Handbook " and " The Practical 
ngineer's Handbook," which are so highly appreciated by engineers for the 
practical nature of their information ; and is consequently written in the same style 
as those works. 

The Author believes that the concentration, in a convenient form for easy 
reference, of such a large amount of thoroughly practical information on Steatn- 
Boilers, wiu be of considerable service to those for whom it is intended, and he trusts 
the book may be deemed worthy of as favourable a reception as has been accorded to 
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mation is of the right kind, in a simple and accessible form. So far as gfeneration is concerned, this 
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Comprising a great variety of the most useful Rules and Formulae in Mechanical 
Science, with numerous Tables of Practical Data and Calculated Results for 
Facilitating Mechanical Operations. By William Tbmpleton, Author of 
" The Engineer's Practical Assistant," &c., &c. Eighteenth Edition. Revised, 
Modernised, and considerably Enlarged by Walter S. Hutton, CEf., Author 
of "The Works' Manager's Handbook,'^ "The Practical Engineer's Hand- 
book," &c. Fcap. 8vo, nearly 500 pp., with 8 Plates and upwards of 350 Illus- 
trative Diagrams, strongly bound for workshop or pocket wear and tear . 6/0 

" In its modernised form Hutton's * Templeton ' should have a wide sale, for it contains much 
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'* The publi^ers wisely entrusted the task of revision of this popular, valuable, and useful 
book to Mr. Hutton, than whom a more competent man they could not have found."— /r^f*. 


A Collection of Useful Tables, Rules, and Data. By William Tbmpleton. 
Eighth Edition, with Additions. iSmo, cloth 2/6 

"Occupies a foremost place among books of this kind. A more suitable present to an 
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A 2 



For Machine and Boiler Construction. In Two Parts. Part I. Genbkal 
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numerous Illustrations. By Nelson Foley, M.I.N.A. Second Edition, 
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PART I.— Measures.— CiRCUMFBRBNCBS and areas, &c., squares. Cubes, 
Fourth powers.— Square and cube Roots.— Surface of Tubes.— reciprocals.— 


POWER. — HEAT.- Combustion.— Expansion and Contraction.— Expansion of 
GASES.— Steam.— STATIC Forces.- Gravitation and Attraction.— motion and 
Computation of Resulting Forces.— accumulated work.— Centre and Radius 


Strength of Materials.— Elasticity.— Test Sheets of Metals.— Friction.— 
Transmission of power.— flow of Liquids.— Flow of Gases.- Air pumps. Surface 
Condensers, &c.— spbbd of stbamships.—Propellers.— Cutting Tools.— Flanges. 
—Copper Shbets and Tubes.— Screws, Nuts, Bolt Heads, &c.— Various Recipes 
AND Miscellaneous Matter.— With DIAGRAMS for Valve-Gear, Belting and 
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" Like all Mr. Goodeve's writings, the present Is no exception In point of general excellence 
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[Just Published. Net 8/6 


Their Strength, Construction, and Economical Working. By R. Wilson, C.E. 

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of Areas, Circumferences, Decimal Equivalents, in inches and feet, millimetres, 

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With especial Reference to Small and Medium-sised Engines. For the Use of 
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Crown 8vo, cloth 9/0 

** A perfect encyclopaedia of the steam engine and Its details, and one which must take a per- 
nanent puce In English orawinf-oflBces and woncshops." — j4 Foreman PeMem-fitaker. 

" This Is an excellent book, and should be in tne hands of all who are interested in the con* 
itnictlon and design of medium-sixed stationary engines. ... A careful study of Its contents and 
the anangement of the sections leads to the conclusion that there Is probably no other book like It 
hi this country. The volume aims at showing the results of practical ezpenence, and it certainly 
may dalm a complete achievement of this lAtau"— Nature. 


Their Draught-Power and StabilitT. With a chapter on Lightning Conductors, 
By ROBBRT Wilson, A.I.C.B., Author of " A Treatise on Steam Boilers," &c. 

Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

" A valuable contribution to the literature of scientific building."— rA< Builder. 


With Examples of Practical Geometry and Templating, for the Use of Platers, 
Smiths, and Riveters. By John Courtney, Edited by D. K. Clark, 
M.I.C.E. Third Edition, 480 pp., with 140 Illustrations. Fcap. 8vo . 7/0 

" No workman or apprentice should be without this book."— /rww Trade Circular. 


A Practical Treatise on the Art and Science of Refrigeration. By A. J. 
Wallis-Taylbr, A.M.Inst.C.E., Author of " Refrigerating and Ice-Making 
Machinery." 600 pp., with 360 Illustrations. Medium 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published, Net 1 6/0 

" The author has to be congratulated on the completion and production of such an impor- 
tant work and it cannot fail to have a lai^e body of readers, for it leaves out nothing that would in 
any way be of value to those interested m the subject." — SUaniship. 

'* No one whose dut)r it is to handle the nianunoth preserving installations of these latter days 
can afford to be without this valuable book."— C/aj^ow Herald. 



Edited by A. J. Wallis-Tayler, A.M.Inst.C.E. Author of "Refrigerating 
and Ice-making Machinery," &c. With Diary and Almanac. Small Crown 
8vo, cloth. \Just Published, Net 2/6 


A Descriptive Treatise for the Use of Persons Employing Refrigerating 
and Ice-Making Installations, and others. By A. J. Wallis-Taylbr, 
A.-M. Inst. C.E. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. With Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 7/6 

"Practical, explicit, and profiiselY illustrated."— (^Aw^trw Herald. 

** We recommend the book, which gives the cost of various systems and illustrations showing 
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facts, fisnues, and tabulated physics of re&igerating. It is one of the best compilations on the 
subject. —^fV<M«cr. 


A Descriptive Treatise on the Mechanical Appliances required in the Cultiva- 
tion of the Tea Plant and the Preparation of Tea for the Market. By A. J. 
Wallis-Taylbr, A.-M. Inst C.E. Medium 8vo, 468 pp. With 218 
Illustrations. U^t Published. Net 26/0 

" When tea plantuig was first hitroduced hito the British possessions little, if any, machinery 
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machinery necessary for the proper outfit of a factory, and also a description of the processes best 
cuiied out by this machinery."— y^wrvfa/ Society nf Arts. 



A Guide to Commercial Engineering. With numerous examples of Estimates 
and Costs of Millwright Work, Miscellaneous Productions, Steam Engines and 
Steam Boilers; and a Section on the Preparation of Costs Accounts. By 
A Gbnbral Manager. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth. [Just Publishtd. 12/0 
" This is an ezceUent and vety useAil book, coverinr subject-matter In constant reqitlsitioa In 

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abo to the estimate departmeitt of ererr vrorks."—BuiUUr. 

" We accord the work unquallfiea praise. The infonnatlon Is given In a plain, straightforward 

manner, and bears thsoucfaout evidence of the intimate practical acquaintance of the author with 

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Their Construction and Management. Bj A. J.Wallis-Tatlbk, A.M.Inst.C.B. 

With 8z Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Puilisked. 7/6 

" This is in its way an excellent volume. Without going Into the minutiae of the subject. It 
yet lays before its readers a very good exposition of the various systems of rope transmission m use, 
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By A. J. Wallis-Tatlbr, Assoc. Memh. Inst. C.E., Author of "Modem 

Cycles, &c. aia pp., with 76 Illustrations. Crown Bvo, cloth . . 4/6 

" Mr. Wallis-Tayler's book is a welcome addition to the literature of the subject, as It is the 
production of an Eneineer, and has not been written with a view to assist in the promotion of 
companies. . . . The book is deariy expressed throughout, and is Just the sort of work that 
an engineer, thinldng of turning his attention to motor<arrlage work, would do well to read as a 
preliminary to starting operations."— ^Mj^M^rW;^. 


A Practical Handbook for Workshop Operations. By Josbph G. Hornbh, 

A.M.I.M.E. 380 pp. with 338 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . 7/6 

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practical hand. ... A practical handbook on a subject which has not hitherto received much 
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A Practical Treatise, embracing the Main Types of Engineering Construction, 
and including Gearing, both Hand and Machme-made, £ngine Work, Sheaves 
and Pulleys, Pipes and Columns, Screws, Machine Parts, Pumps and Cocks, 
the Moulding of Patterns in Loam and Greensand, &c., together with the 
methods of estimating the weight of Castings ; with an Appendix of Tables for 
Worktop Reference. By Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.M.E. Third Edition, 
Enlarged. With 486 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . . . Ntt 7/6 

" A well-written technical guide, evidently written by a man who understands and has prac- 
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"An excellent vad€ nucutn for the apprentice who deabes to become master of his trade." 
—EMfUsh Mechanic. 


gjockwood's Dictionary oO- Embracing those current in the Drawing Office, 
attern Shop, Foundry, Fitting, Turning, Smiths', and Boiler Shops, &c. Com- 
rarising upwards of 6.000 Definitions, ^ited by J. G. Hornbr, A.M.I.M.E. 
Third Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth Net 7IS 

"Just the sort of handy dictionary required by the various trades engaged in mechanical eo- 
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foreman engineer and mechanic shouia have a copY"—-Builditig News. 


A Practical Handbook for Offices and Workshops. By Joseph Hormbr, 

A.M.I.M.E. With 184 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . . . 6/0 

" We must give the book our unqualified praise for its thoroughness of treatment, and we can 
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Mechanical World. 


With a History of Fire-Engines, their Construction, Use, and Manage- 
ment; Foreign Fire Systems; Hints on Fire-Brigades, &c By Charles 
F. T. Young, C.E. 8vo, cloth £1 4g, 

" To such of our readers as are Interested In the sub'ect of fires and fire apparatus we can 
most heartily commend this \Mt^"'—Bngin€ering. 



A Practical Handbook on the Construction of Dirigible Balloons, Aeiostats, 
Aerop'anesy and Aeremotors. By Frederick Walker, C.E., Associate 
Member of the A€ronaatic Institute. With 104 Illustrations. Large Crown 
8vo, cloth. [Just Fublishsd. Net. JjQ 


A Manual dealing with the Rapid and Economical Conversion of Stone. With 

Hints on the Arrangement and Management of Stone Works. By M. Powis 

Balb, M.I.M.E. Second Edition, enlarged. Crown 8 vo, doth . 9/0 

" Should be in the hands of every mason or student of stonework."— Cv/Z^ry Guardian. 
" A capital handbook for all who manipulate stone for building or ornamental purposes."— 


A Handbook for Pump Users. Being Notes on Selection, Construction, and 

Management. By M. Powis Balk, M.I.M.E. Fourth Edition. Crown 

Svo, cloth. [Just Publishsd, 3/6 

" The matter is set forth as concisely as possible. In fact, condensation rather than difiiise- 
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A Practical Treatise on Shaping Metals by Rotary Cutters. Including 
Information on Making and Grinding the Cutters. By Paul N. Hasluck, 
Author of " Lathe- Work." 352 pp. With upwards of 300 Engravings. Large 

crown Svo, cloth ; . 12/6 

" A new departure In engineering literature. . . . We can recommend this work to all in* 
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" A capital and reliable book whkh will no doubt be of considerable service both to those 
who are ahready acquainted with the process as well as to those who contemplate its adoption. "— 


A Practical Treatise on the Tools, Appliances, and Processes employed in 
the Art of Turning. By P. N. Hasluck. Seventh Edition. Crown Svo. 5/0 

" Written by a man who knows not only how work ous^t to be done, but who also knows how 
to do It, and how to convey his knowledge to others. To autumers this book would be valuable."— 

" We can safely recommend the work to young engineers. To the amateur It will simply be 
invaluable. To the student it will convey a great deal of usefid lnf6nni^n."-^i^ffHMr. 


And Methods of Producing Them. With numerous Tables and complete 

Directions for using Screw-Cutting Lathes. By Paul N. Hasluck, Authc r 

of " Lathe- Work," &C. Fifth EdiOon. Waistcoat-pocket size . .1/6 

" FuH of useful information, hints and practical criticism. Taps, dies, and screwing toob 

generally are illustrated and their actions described."— Af<cAa»»as/ World. 

" It is a complete compendium of all the detafls of the screw-cutting lathe ; in feet a nt/uUum' 
in-^rvo on all the subjects it treats \xp(m,"—CatfeHttr and Builder. 



Selected and Arranged by Francis Smith. Sixth Edition, Revised, including 
Electrical Tables, FoRMULiB, and Memoranda. Waistcoat-pocket sixe, 
limp leather. [Just Publtslud. 1/6 

" It would, perhaps, be as difficult to make a smaU pocket-book selection of notes and formulae 
to suit all engineers as it would be to make a universal medicine ; but Mr. Smith's waistcoat- 
pocket collection may be Iboked upon as a successful attemot."—£n£'fyuer. 

" The best example we have ever seen of 270 pages ot useful matter packed into the dimtn. 
dons of a caxii<ase."—Buiidif$£' News. " A veritable pocket treasury of knowledge."— iirvfr. 


English-French, French-English ; with Tables suitable for the Architecttutd, 
Engineering, Manufacturing, and Nautical Professions. By John James 
Fletcher. Third Edition, aoo pp. Wabtcoat-pocket size, leather . 1/6 

" It Is a very great advantage for readers and correspondents In France and England to ha^ e 
so large a number of the words relating to engineering and manufocturers collected m a lilliputlan 
volume. The little book will be usefmboth to students and txareOen."— Architect. 

" The glossary of terms is very complete, and many of the Tables are new and well arranged. 
We cordially commend the book."— Mechanical IVorld 



Compristiiff Formnbe, Rules, Tables, Data and Memoranda in Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical, Marine and Mine Eneineering. By H. R. Kbmpb, A.M. Inst. C.E., 
M.I.E.E., Principal Technical Officer, Eneineer-in-Chief's Office, General Post 
Office, London, Author of "A' Handbook of Electrical Testing," "The 
Electncal Engineer's Pocket-Book," &c. With x,ooo Illustrations, specially 
Engraved for Um work. Crown 8vo, 900 pp., leather. [Just PiMisMd. 8/0 
"Kempe's Year Book really requires no commendatioo. Its sphere of usefulness is widely 
known, and It b used by engineers tbe world over."-^7'A< Bngineer. 

"The volume Is distinctly fax advance of most rimllar publications fax this country."— 

" This valuable and weU-deslgned book of lefBrence meets the demands of all descriptions of 
no^ia»K%."— Saturday RevUw. 

" Teems whh up-to^late Infoimation In eveiy bianch of engineering and constructloo."— 
BiMdInr Mkms. 

** Tbe need s of the engi n e erin g piofbasioB conld haidly be supplied In a more adndnble, 
complete and convenient form. To say that it more than sustains all comparisons is praise of ttie 
highest sort, and that may Justly be %aSA of ML"— Minings youmal. 

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wdl as formulae and tablM. It deserves to become one of the most successful of the tmrhnkal 

*' Brings together with great sklD all the tedmlcal Infoimation which an engineer has to 1 
day by day. It is in every way admirabfy equipped, and is sure to prove saccessML"—Scctsma$t, 

" The up-to-dateness of Mr. Kempe's compilation is a quality that will not be lost on the busy 
people for whom the work is Intended."— GAuf^fiyn/ Herald, 


A Practical Manual on its Construction and Management. For the use 

of Owners and Users of Steam Engines generally. By William Dyson 

Wansbrough. Crown 8vo, cloth 3/6 

** This is a woric of value to those who use steam machinery. . . . Should be read by every 
one who has a steam engine, on a farm or elsewhere."— Jlfarik Lant Express. 

** We conUallv commend this work to buyers and owners of steam-engines, and to those wlio 
have to do with their construction or use."— 7*m^0r Trades youmal 

" Such a general knowledge of the steam-engine as Mr. Wansbrough furnishes to the reader 
should be acquired by all intelligent owners and others who use the steam-migine."— ^Mi/lflU'V' J^ews. 

" An excellent text-book of this useful form of engine. The * Hints to Purchasers ' contain a 
good deal of common-sense and practical wisdom."— English Mechanie. 


Their Care and Management. By Charles Hurst, Autnur of "Valves and 
Valve Gearitig." Crown 8vo. [In the press. 


A Work for the Forge, Foundry^ Factory, and Office. Containing ready, 
useful, and trustworthy Informauon for Ironmasters and their Stock-takers: 
Managers of Bar, Rail, Plate, and Sheet Rolling Mills; Iron and Metal 
Fotmders; Iron Ship and Bridge Builders ; Mec^uiical. Mining, and Con« 
suiting Engineers ; Architects, Contractors, Builders, &c By Charles Hoarb, 
Author of ^' The Slide Rule," &c Ninth Edition, samo, leather . 6/0 

" For comprehensiveness the book has not its equal."— /rv«. 

•* One of the best of the pocket hoo)a."—Ef^lish Mechanic. 


A Selection of Formulae, Rules, Tables, and Data for the Use of Engineering 
Studenu, &c By W. G. C. Hughes, A.M.I.CE. Crown 8vo, cloth . 2/6 

" The book is well fitted for those who are either confronted with practical problems in 
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their formulae agahu"— Marine Engineer. 


'Containing Rules for Unprofesaonal Steam Users. By an Engineer. Seventh 
Edition. Sewed 6d. 

" If steam-users would but learn this little book by heart, boiler explosions would become 
seniatlons by their tv^."— English Mechanic, 



The Autobiography of an Old Locomotive Engine. By Robert Weather- 
burn, M.I.M.E. With Illustrations and Portraits of George and Robert 
Stephenson. Crown 8vo, cloth. l/ust Puilished. Net 2/6 


*' It would be difficult to Imaj^ine anything more ingeniously planned, more cleverly worlced 
outf and more charmingly written. Readers cannot fail to find the volume most enjoyable."— 
Glasgvw Herald, 


A Popular Treatise on the Gradual Improvements made in Railway Engines 
between 1803 and z&q6. By Clement E. Stretton, C.E. Fifth Edition, 
Enlarged. With xso Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 3/6 

*' Students of railway history and ail who are Interested In the evolution of the modem 
locomotive will find much to attract and entertain in this volume."— rAc Times. 


A Practical Manual for Engineers in Charge of Locomotive Engines. By 
Michael Reynolds, Member of the Society of Engineers, formerly Loco- 
motive Inspector, L. B. & S. C R. Eleventh Edition. Including a Key to 
the Locomotive Engine. Crown 8vo, cloth 4/6 

" Mr. Reynolds has supplied a want, and has supplied it welL We can confidently recom* 
mend the booK not only to the practical driver, but to everyone who takes an interest in the 
peifonnance of locomotive engines."— 7'i%< Engineer . 

" Mr. Reynolds has opened a new chapter In the iUeratuxe of the day. His treatise is 


Fireman, and Engine-Boy. Comprising a Historical Notice of the Pioneer 
Locomotive Engines and their Inventors. By Michael Reynolds. Second 
Edition, with Revised Appendix. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 4/6 

" From the technical knowledge of the author, te will appeal to the railwav man of to-day 
more forcibly than anything written by Dr. SmOes. . . . The volume contains Information of a 
teclmical kind, and facts that every driver should be familiar witli." — English Mechanic. 

" We should be glad to see this book in the possession of everyone in the kingdom wlio lias 
ever laid, or is to lay, hands on a locomotive engine."— /rvM. 


A Practical Treatise on the several Systems in Use in the United Kingdom : 
their Construction and Performance. With copious Illustrations and numerous 

Tables. By Michael Reynolds. 8vo, cloth 9/0 

" A popular explanation of the diflferent brakes. It will be of great assistance In forming 

public opimon, and will be studied with benefit by those who take an Interest in the hraks."—Engiish 



A Practical Manual or Engineers in Charge ot Stationary Engines. By 
Michael Reynolds. Sixth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . . . 4/6 

" The author Is thoroughly acquainted with his subjects, and his advice on the various points 
treated is clear and practical. ... He has produced a manual which is an exceedingly useful 
one for the class for whom it is specially iateaded."— Engineering. 

" Our author leaves no stone unturned. He is determined that his readers shall not only 
know sometliing about the stationary engine, but ail about it."— Engineer. 


Stirring Adventure and Incidents in the Lives ot Locomotive Engine- 

Drivers. By Michael Reynolds. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 1/6 

" Perfectly foscinadng. Wilkie Collins's most thrilling conceptions are thrown into the 
shade by true mcidents, endless in their variety, related in every pag^^— North British Mail. 


And Practical Educator for Enginemen, Boiler Attendants, and Mechanics. 

By Michael Reynolds. With 45 Illustrations and numerous Diagrams. 

Fourth Edition, Revised. Royal i8mo, strongly bound for pocket wear. 3/6 

•• This admirable work is well suited to accomplish its object, being the honest woriananship 

of a competent eag^eet."— Glasgvw Herald, 





A Practical Handbook settine forth the Prindoles on which Light Railways 
should be Constructed, Worked, and Financea ; and detailing the Cost of 
Construction, Equipment, Revenue and Working Expenses of Local Railways 
already established in the above-mentioned countries, and in Belgium. France, 
Switzerland, &c. By J. C. Mack at, F.G.S., A.M.Inst.C.E. Illustrated 
with Plates and Diagrams. Medium 8vo, cloth. [Just Publishid, 1 5/0 

"Mr. Mackay's voliime Is clearly and concisely written, adiairably arranged, and freely 
illustrated. The book is exactly what has been lone wanted. We recommend it to all interested 
in the subject. It is sure to have a wide saie."—Rauway News. 


A Practical Treatise. By Charlbs Prbuni, C.E. With additions by 
Charles S. Hill, C.E. Including 150 Dii^rams and Illustrations. Roysd 
8vo, cloth. [Just Publishid. Net 16/0 


Explaining in detail Setting-out the Works, Shaft-sinking, and Heading-driving, 
Ranging the Lines and Levelling underground, Sub-Excavating, Timbering 
and the Construction of the Brickwork of Tunnels, with the amount of Lsdx>ur 
required for, and the Cost of, the various portions of the work. By Frederick 
W. SiMMS. M.Inst.C.£. Fourth Edition, Revised and Further Extended, 
including the most recent (1805) Examples of Sub-aqueous and other Tunnels, 
by D. KiNNEAR Clark, M. Inst. C.E. Imperial 8vo, with 34 Folding Plates 
and other Illustrations. Cloth. [Ji^t Publhhsd. £2 2s. 

" The present (1896) edition has been brousiit rigfht up to date, and is thus rendered a work to 
which civil engineers generally should have ready access, and to which engineers who have con- 
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Is iuTaluable. as from its pages they can learn the state to which the science of tunnelling has 
attained."— J?0»/way News. 

*' The estimation In which Mr. Slmms's book has been held for many yean cannot be more 
truly expressed than in the words of the late Prof. Rankine: ' The best source of information 00 
the subject of tunnels is Mr. F. W. Sfanms's work on Practical Tunnelling.' "—Architect. 


A Practical Treatise for the Use of Engineers and Students of En^neering. 
By W. K. Burton, A.M. Inst C.E., Professor of Sanitary Engineering in the 
Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan, and Consulting Engineer to the Tokjro 
Water-works. Second Edition, Revised and Extendi. With numerous 
Plates and Illustrations. Super-royal 8vo, buckram. [Just Published. 25/0 


Water to be Provided.— IV. On Ascertaining whether a Proposed Source op 
SUPPLY IS Sufficient.— V. On Estimating the Storage Capacity required 


voiRS.— VIII. Earthwork Dams.— IX. Mas6nry Dams.— X. The Purification op 
Water.— XI. Settling Reservoirs.— XI I. Sand Filtration.— XIII. purification 
of Water by Action of Iron, Softening of Water by Action of Lime. Natural 
Filtration.— XIV. Service or Clean Water Reservoirs— water Towers— Stand 
pipes.— XV. The connection of Settling Reservoirs, filter Beds and Service 
Reservoirs.- XVI. pumping Machinery.— XVII. Flow of Water in CoNDurrs— 
Pipes and Open Channels.— XVIII. Distribution Systems.— XIX. Special Pro- 
visions FOR the Extinction of Fire.— XX. Pipes for Water-works.— XXI. pre- 
vention OF Waste of Water.— XXII. Various Applications used in Connection 
with Water-works. 

Appendix I. By Prof. JOHN MILNE, R.S.— Considerations concerning the 
PROBABLE Effects of Earthquakes on water-works, and the special Prb- 



" The chapter ujpon filtration of water is rery complete, and the details of construction wdl 
Illustrated. . . . Tne work should be specially valuable to civil engineers engaged in work In 
Japan, but the interest is by no means confined to that ]ocd3iXy."— Engineer. 

" We congratulate the author upon the practical commonsense shown fai the preparation of 
this woric . . . The plates and aiagrams have evidently been prepared with great care, and 
cannot fall to be of great assistance to the sXadeaL."— Builder. 

" The whole art of water-works construction Is dealt with in a clear and comprehensive fashion 
in this handsome volume. . . . Mr. Burton's practical treatise Shows in all its sections the fruit 
of Independent study and Individual experience. It is largely based upon his own practice In the 
bnuBCh ofenglneeringofwhich It treats. "—sS«/wt«te Review, 



By William Humbbr. A. M. Inst. C.E., and M. Inst M.E., Audior of " Cast 

and Wrought Iron Bridge Construction," &c., &c. Illustrated with 50 Double 

Plates, X Single Plate, Coloured Frontispiece, and upwards of 350 Woodcuts, 

and containing 400 pp. of Text. Imp. 4to, elegantly and substantially 

haU'-bound in nunrocco li^ti £6 6s. 

List of Contbnts. 

I. Historical sketch op somb of thb mbans that havb bbbn adoptbd for 
THB Supply of watbr to cmBs and towns.— II. Watbr and thb forbign mattbr 


X. Pumps.— XI. pumping Machinbry.— xil. conduits.— xill. Distribution of watbr. 
—XIV. mbtbrs, Sbrvicb pipbs, and Housb Fittings.- XV. thb law of economy of 
watbr-works.— XVI. constant and intbrmittbnt Supply.— XVII. dbscription of 
Platbs.— Appbndicbs, giving tablbs of ratbs of Supply, vblocitibs, &c., &c, 
toqbthbr with specifications of sbvbral works illustrated, among which 


" The most systematic and TahiaUe work upon water supply hitherto produced In English, or 
In any o^er language. It is characterised almost throughout by an ezhausttvenflis much more 
distinctlYe of French and German than of English technical treadaes."— /^m^mmt. 


A Practical Handbook on the Supply of Water and Construction of Water- 
works for small Country Districts. By Allan Greenwbll, A.M.I.C.E., 
and W. T. Curry, A.M.I.C.E., F.G.S. With Illustrations. Second Edition, 
Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 0/0 

" We conscientiously reconunend It as a rery useful book for those concerned in obtaining 
water for small districts, giving a great deal of practiod information in a small cmnpass.''Su4Uler. 

" The volume contains valuable information upon all matters connected with water supply. 
. . . Full of details on points which are continually before water-worlcs engineers."— ATaXwrv. 


A Practical Manual on the Concentration and Transmission of Power by 
Hydraulic Machinery. By G. Croydon Marks, A.M. Inst. C.E. With 
nearly aoo Illustrations. 8vo, cloth. [Just Publuhed, Net 9/0 


SURFACES.— Pipe Joints.— Controlling Valves.— platform Lifts.— Workshop, 
Factory, and Dock Cranes.— Hydraulic Accumulators.— Presses.— Sheet Metal 
Working and Forging Machinery.— Hydraulic Rivetters.— Hand, Power, and 
steam pumps.— turbines.— Impulse and Re-action Turbines.— Design of tur- 
bines.— Water Wheels.— Hydraulic Engines.— Recent achievements.— Tables. 

" We have nothing^ but praise for this thoroughly valuable work. The author has succeeded 
in rendering his subject mteresting as well as instructive."— /'raci&a/ Engineer. 

" Can be unh^tatingly recommended as a usefiil and up-to-date manual on hydraulic trans- 
mission and utilisation of power."— AfeeAanicai fVorld. 


For Finding the Discharge of Water from Orifices, Notches, Weirs, Pipes, and 
Rivers. With New Formulae, Tables, and General Information on Rain-fall, 
Catchment-Basins, Drainage, Sewerage. Water Supply for Towns and Mill 
Power. Bv John Nbvillb, Civil Engineer, M.R.I.A. Third Edition, 
revised, with additions. Numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth . 1 4>/0 
" It is, of all English books on the subiect, the one nearest to completeness."— ^rcAitecA 


Consbting of Working Tables and Explanatory Text. Intended as a Guide in 
Hydraulic Calculations and Field Operations. By Lowis D'A. Jackson, 
Author of "Aid to Survey Practice," "Modem Metrology," &c Fourth 

Edition, Enlarged. Large crown 8vo, cloth 1 6/0 

"The author has constructed a manual which may be accepted as a trustworthy guide 
to this branch of the engineer's pto{v3iAQa."—Engineerin£r. 


A Practical Treatise on the Measurement, Storage, Conveyance, and Utilisa- 
tion of Water for the Supply of Towns, for Mill Power, and for other Purposes. 
By C. Slagg, a. M. Inst. C.E. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 7/6 
" As a smaU practical treatise on the water supply of towns, and on some applications of water- 
power, the work to In many respects 9ix e i\ ] m i X ,"—Mfig i» uering. 



A Handbook for Engineers, Landed Proprietors, and others interested in 
Works of Reclamation. By Albxandbr Bbazelkv, M.Inst. CE. With 
Illustrations. 8vo, cloth. l/ust Published. Net 1 0/6 

" The book shows In a concise way what has to be done in reclahningr land from the sea, and 
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owners intending to reclaim land from the sea."— 7'A« Engineer. 

"The autnorjhas carried out his task efficiently and well, and his book contains a laise 
amount of Information of great aerrice to engineers and others Interested In works of reclamation." 


Including namerous Formulse, Forms of Specification and Tender, Pocket 
Diuram oi Forces, &c. For the use of Civil and Mining Engineers. By 
C. F. Courtney, M. Inst. CE. 8vo, cloth. [Just Publtshsd. 9/0 

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advice. Manv useful suggestions will be found In the remarks on site and position, loc^on 
of dam, foundations and construction."— ^MiWMSf News, 


The Causes of their Formation, and their Treatment by " Induced Tidal 
Scour " ; with a Deaciipti<m of the Successful Reduction by this Method of 
the Bar at Dublin. By I. J. Mann, Assist. Eng. to the Dubhn Port and Docks 
Board. Royal 8vo, cloth 7/6 

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Embracing a Com(>rehensive History of the System; with an exhaustive 
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Edition, Thoroughl^r Revised, and Including the Progress recently made in 
Tramway Construction, &c., &c By D. Kinnbar Clark, M. Inst. CE. 
With 400 Illustrations. 8vo, 780 pp., buckram. [Just Published. 28/0 

** The new volume b one which will rank, among tramway engineers and those interested in 
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Including the Setting-out of Works for Construction and Surveys Abroad, with 
many Examples taken from Actual Practice. A Handbook for use in the Field 
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A Text-Book for Students preparing for Examinations or for Survey-work in 
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" The latest treatise in the English languasv on surveying, and we have no hesitation in say- 
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For Reference in Surveying, Levelling, and Setting-out ; and in Route Sur- 
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A practical Manual for the nse of Civil and Military Engineers and Surveyors. 

Including two series of Tables specially computed for the Reduction of 

Readings in Sexagesimal and in Centesimal Degrees. By Nsix. KsNNBDVt 

M. Inst. C.E. With Diagrams and Plates. Demy 8vo, cloth. Net 10/6 

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Showing its Application to Purposes of Railway and Civil Engineering In 
the Construction of Roads ; with Mr. Telford's Rules for the same. By 
Frbdbrick W. Simms, F.G.S., M. Inst. CE. Eighth Edition, with the 
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For the Formation of GecMnraphical and Topo^aphical Maps and Plans, Mili* 
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and Tables. By Lieut -General Fromb, R.E. Fourth Edition, Revised and 
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From « to 200 Radius. B^ A. Bbazblbt, M. Inst. CE. 6th Edition, 
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[Just Pnblisked, 3/6 

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he puts Into his own card-case, and leaves the rest htaaDd."—AtfuiutufH. 


Giving the Contents in Cubic Yards of Centre and Slopes of Cuttings and 
Embimkments from 3 inches to 80 feet in Depth or Height, for use with either 
66 feet Chain or xoo feet Chain. By J. Ii. Watson Buck, M. Inst. CE. 
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Resident Engineer, L. and N. W. R. With Folding Plates, 8vo, cloth 1 2/0 

' Many of the methods given are of extreme practical value to the mason, and the obaerra- 
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* Win be regarded by dvll engineers as of the utmost vafaie, and calculated to save mnch 


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(A Complete and Practical Treatise on)> including Iron Foundations. In 
Three Parts. — ^Theoretical, Practical, and Descriptive. By William Humbbr, 
A. M. Inst. C.E., and M. Inst. M.E. Third E^dition, revised^ and mudi^ im* 
proved, with X15 Double Plates (ao of which now first appear in this edition), 
and numerous Additions to the Text. In a vols., imp. 4to, half-bound m 

morocco £8 lOa* So* 

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"Mr. number's stately volumes, lately issued— in which the most important bridges 
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Mr. Hawkshaw, Mr. Page, Mr. Fowler, Mr. Hemans, and others among our most eminent 
engineers, are drawn and spedfied in great detaiL"— ffv^Mcr. 


(Practical and Theoretical). With 13 large Plates. By the late Gborgb 
Watson Buck, M.I.CE. Fourth Edition, revised b^ his Son, J. H. Watson 
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(A Practical Treatise on). By John Hart. Third Edition, with Plates. 
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In their Practical Application to the Treatment of Stresses in Roofs, Solid 

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Piers, and other Frameworks. By R. Hudson Graham, C.E. Containing 

Dia^ams and Plates to Scale. With numerous Examples, many taken from 

existing^ Structures. Specially arranged for Class-work in Colleges and 

Universities. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 8vo, cloth . 1 6/0 

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ttaOinA:'— Engineer. 

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weO^elected e x a m p l es. It is an ezcdlent text-book for the practical draughtsman."- ^Mw»Hn«M. 


A Graphic Table for Facilitating the Computation of the Weights of Wrought 
Iron and Steel Girders. &c., for Parliamentary and other Estimates. By 
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" No book with the same objects in view has ever been published in which the clearness of 
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In Girders and Similar Structures and their Strength. Consistine of Formulae 
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With Rules for Application in Architecture, the Construction of Suspension 
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A. M.Inst. C.E. 8vo, cloth 18/0 

" Valuable alike to the student tyro, and the experienced practitioner, It will always rank 
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" As a scientific work of the first class, it deserves a foremost place on the boolc^dTes of 
every dvil engineer and practical mechanic"— JBn^/ffA Mechanic. 


A Treatise on Railway Accidents, their Cause and Prevention ; with a De- 
scription of Modem Appliances and Systems. By Clement E. Strbtton, 
C.E., Vice-President and Consulting Eneineer, Amalgamated Sodetj^ of 
Railway Servants. With Illustrations and Coloured Plates. Third Edition, 
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infonnadoa on railway matters will find a perfect encyclopaedia in ' Safe Railway Working.' "— 
Railway Review. 

" We commend the remarics on railway signalUng to all railway managers, especially where 
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By John Keilt, C.E., late of the Indian Public Works Department. Crown 

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Complete in Four Volumes, imperial 4to, half-morocco, price £12 12s. 

Each volume sold separately, as follows : — 
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OF Crbmornb Music Hall; bridge over G. N. railway; roof of Station, 
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Extension Railway (5 plates); Armour Plates; Suspension Bridge, Thames 
(4 PLATES); The Allen Engine; Suspension bridge, Avon (3 plates); Under. 
ground Railway (3 plates). 


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press, Specifications, &c. Half-morocco £3 3s, 

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Robbery wood Viaduct, Great Northern Railway; iron Permanent way; 
CLYDACH Viaduct, mbrthyr, Tredegar, and Abergavenny Railway; Ebbw 
Viaduct, mbrthyr, Tredegar, and Abergavenny Railway; College Wood 
Viaduct, Cornwall Railway; Dublin Winter Palace Roof (3 plates); Bridge 

(4 PLATES). 


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Sewers ; Middle Level Sewer (3 plates) ; Outfall Sewer. Bridge over RrvER 
Lea (3 plates) ; outfall Sewer, Bridge over Marsh Lane, North Woolwich 
Railway, and Bow and Barking railway Junction ; Outfall Sewer, Bridge over 
BOW AND Barking Railway (3 plates) ; Outfall Sewer, Bridge over East London 
Water-works' Feeder (a plates) ; Outfall Sewer reservoir (s plates) ; Outfall 
Sewer, tumbling Bay and Outlet ; Outfall Sewer, penstocks. South SitU.-^ 
Outfall sewer, bermondsby branch (a plates) ; outfall sewer, reservoir and 
Outlet (4 plates) ; Outfall sewer. Filth Hoist ; sections of Sewers North and 
South sides). 

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minster (9 platbs); Landing Stairs between Charing Cross and Waterloo 
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AND Iron forts. 


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OVER THE River Wye, Midland Railway (3 plates); St. Germans Viaduct, 
CORNWALL Railway (a plates); Wrought-Iron Cylinder for Diving Bell 

TRICT Railway (6 plates) ; Harbours, ports, and breakwaters (3 plates). 





POCKET-BOOK of Formuls, Rules, and Tables, and Marine Engineer's and 
Surveyor's Handy Book of Reference. By Clement Mackrow, M.I.N. A. 
Eighth Edition, Carefully Revised and Enlarged. Fcap., leather. 

[Just Pitblisked. Drei-l2IS 
Summary of Contents :— signs and Symbols, decimal FRA6noNS.— Trigono* 
mbtry.— practical geometry.— mensuration.— centres and moments of figures, 
—moments of inertia and radii op gyration.— algebraical expressions for 
simpson's rules.— mechanical principles.— centre of gravity.— laws of motion. 
—Displacement, Centre of buoyancy.— Centre of gravity of Ship's Hull.— 
Stability Curves and Mbtacbntres.— Sea and shallow-water waves.— Rolling 
of Ships.— propulsion and Resistance of Vessels.— Speed trials.— sailing 
Centre of Effort.— Distances down Rivers, Coast Lines.— Steering and 
Rudders of Vessels.— Launching Calculations and Velocities.— weight of 
material and gear.— gun particulars and weight.- standard gauges.— 
Riveted Joints and Riveting.— Strength and Tests of Materials.— Binding 
and shearing stresses, &c.— strength of shafting. pillars, wheels, &c. 
—hydraulic data, &c. — conic sections, catenarian curves. — mechanical 
POWERS, Work.— BOARD OP Trade Regulations for Boilers and Engines.- Board 
OP Trade Regulations for Ships.— Lloyd's Rules for Boilers.— Lloyd's Weight 
OP Chains.— Lloyd's Scantlings for Ships.— Data of Engines and Vessels.— 
Ships' Fittings and Tests.— Seasoning preserving timber.— Measurement of 
Timber.— alloys. Paints, Varnishes.— Data for Stowage.— admiralty trans- 
port Regulations. — Rules for Horse-power, Screw Propellers, &c.— Per- 
centages for Butt straps, &c.— Particulars of Yachts.— Masting and Rigging 
Vessels.— Distances of Foreign Ports.— Tonnage Tables.— Vocabulary of 
french and english terms. — english weights and measures. — foreign 
Weights and Measures.— decimal Equivalents.— Foreign Money.— Discount 
AND Wages Tables.— Useful Numbers and Ready Reckoners.— Tables of 
Circular Measures.- Tables of Areas of and Circumferences of Circles.— 
Tables of Areas of Segments of Circles.— Tables of Squares and Cubes and 
Roots op numbers.— Tables of Logarithms of numbers.— Tables of HypbR' 
BOLic Logarfthms.— Tables of Natural Sines, Tangents, &c.— Tables of 
Logarithmic Sines, Tangents, &c. « 

" In these davs of adTanced knowledge a work like this is of the greatest value. It contains 
a Tast amount of iniormatlon. We unhesitaBnghr say that It Is the most valuable compilation for its 
specific purpose that has ever been printed. No naval architect, engineer, surveyor, or seaman, 
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" Should be used by all who are engaged in the construction or desi^ of vessels. . . . Will 
be found to contain the most useful tables and formulae required by shipbuilders, carefully collected 
from the best authorities, and put together in a popular and simple form. The book is one of 
exceptional merit." — Engineer. 

" The professional shipbuilder has now, in a convenient and accessible form, reliable data for 
solving many of the numerous problems that present themselves in the course of his -work."— Iron. 

"There is no doubt that a pocket-boolc of this description must be a necessity in the ship- 
building trade. . . The volume contains a mass of useful information clearly expressed and 
presented in a handy {orm."— Marine Engineer. 


To Board of Trade Examinations for Certificates of Competency. Containing 
all Latest Questions to Date, with Simple, Clear, and Correct Solutions ; 
302 Elementary Questions with Illustrated Answers, and Verbal Questions 
and Answers; complete Set of Drawings with Statements completed. By 
A. C. Wannan,C.E., Consulting Engineer, and E. W. I. Wannan, M.I.M.E., 
Certificated First Class Marine Engineer. Illustrated with numerous Engrav- 
ings. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 500 pages. Large crown 8vo, 
cloth. \Just Published. Net lOIQ 

" The book is clearly and plainly written and avoids unnecessary explanations and formulas, 
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Containing the Latest Board of Trade Rules and Data for Marine Engineers. 

By A. C. Wannan. Third Edition, Revised, Enlarged, and Brought Up to 

Date. Square x8mo, with thumb Index, leather. C/m' ^ Published. BIO 

" There is a great deal of usefid information in this little pocket-book. It is of the rule-pf- 

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(Technical Dictionary of) used in the English and French Languages 
(English-French^ French-English). For the Use of Seamen, Engineers, Pilots, 
ShipDuilders, Shipowners, and Snip-hrokers. G>mpiled by W. Pikrib, late of 
the African Steamship Company. Fcap. 8vo, cloth limp 6/0 

" This Tolume wiU be highly appreciated by seamen, engineers, pilots, shipbolldecs and ship- 
owners. It will be found wondenully accurate and complete.' —Sevi^nMan. 

" A very useful dictionary, which has long been wanted by French and English engineers, 
masteti, officers and others. "-sSAf>t^^Mir ^«rtf; 


A Handbook on the Practical Fitting and Running of Shi^' Electrical Plant, 
for the Use of Shipowners and Builders, Marine Electricians and Sea-^oing 
Engineers in Charge. By T. W. Urquhart, Author of "Elecuic Light," 
"Dynamo Construction, &c Second Edition, Revised and Extended. 
326 pp., with 88 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [/«m/ Publisfud. 7/6 


Consisting of useful Tables and Formulae. By Frank Proctor, A.LN.A. 

Third Edition. Royal 32mo, leather, gilt edges, with strap . . 4>/0 

" We recommend it to our readers as going far to supply a long-felt want."— AS«v«/ SeUnce, 
" A most useful companion to all marine engineers."— CAfAtatf StrvUe GatntU. 


A Manual for Young Marine Engineers and Apprentices. In the Form ot 
Questions and Answers on Metals^ Alloys, Strength of Materials, Construction 
and Management of Marine Engines and Boilers, Geometry, &c., &c. With 
an Appendix of Useful Tables. By J. S. Brewer. Crown 8vo, cloth . 1 /6 

" Contains much valuable information for the class for whom it is intended, especially in the 
chapters on the management of boilers and engines."— AisMMoi/ MagoMitu, 


A Treatise on. By Robert Murray, C.E. Eighth Edition, thoroughly 
Revised, with considerable Additions by the Author and by George 
Carlisle, C.E., Senior Surveyor to the Board of Trade. lamo, cloth . 4/G 


Consisting of The Sailor's Sea-Book, by James Greenwood and W. H. 
RossER ; together with the exquisite Matnematical and Nautical Tables for 
the Working of the Problems, by Hknry Law, C.E., and Professor J. R. 
Young. Illustrated, zamo, strongly half-bound 7/0 


Bv Samuel B. Sadler, Practical Sailmaker, late in the emplovment of 

Messrs. Ratsey and Lapthome, of Cowes and Gosport. With Plates and 

other Illustrations. Small 4to, cloth 1 2/6 

" This extremely practical work gives a complete education in all the branches of the manu. 
acture, cutting out, ropmg, seaming, and coring. It is copiously illustrated, and will form a first- 
rate text-book and fpoiAit. —PorUm4nitk Times. 


Comprising Sizes and Ctu^es of Links, Studs, &c., Iron for Cables and Chains, 
Chain Cable and Chain Making, Forming and Welding Links, Strength of 
Cables and Chains, Certificates for Cables, Marking Cables, Prices of Chain 
Cables and Chains, Historical Notes, Acts of Parliament, Statutory Tests, 
Charges for Testing, List of Manufacturers of Cables, &c., ac By 
Thomas W. Traill, F.E.R.N., M.Inst.CE., Engineer-Surveyor-in-Chiet, 
Board of Trade, Inspector of Chain Cable and Anchor Proving Establishments, 
and General Superintendent Lloyd's Committee on Proving Establishments. 
With numerous Tables, Illustrations, and Lithc^aphic Drawings. Folio, 

cloth, bevelled boards £2 2a, 

" It contains a vast amount of valuable information. Nothing s jems to be wanting to make It 
a cuuiplete and standard work of reference on the viOlitKX."—Na*aUml Magwtifu. 




And their Future Development, considered from the Commercial Point of View. 
By G. A. Denny, M.N.E. Inst. M.E., Consulting Engineer to the General 
Mining and Finance Corporation, Ltd., of London, Berlin, Paris, and Johan- 
nesburg. Fully Illustrated with Diagrams and Folding Plates. Royal 8vo, 
buckram. [/usi Published. Net 26/0 

** Mr. Denny by confining^ himself to the consideration of the future of the deep-level mines 
of the Rand breaks new g-round, and by dealing with the subject rather from a commercial stand- 
point than from a scientific one, appeals to a wide circle of readers. The book cannot fail to prove 
of very great value to mvestors in South African vaSxis&."— Mining yourna.'. 

"The volume will interest all who are concerned in any way with the Witwatersrand 
Goldfields."— rA« Times. 


A Handbook of Information and Hints for Prospectors based on Personal 
Experience. By Daniel J. Rankin, F.R.S.G.S., M.R.A.S. Author of "The 
Zambesi Basin," &c. ; formerly Manager of the Central African Company, and 
Leader of African Gold Prospecting Expeditions. With Illustrations specially 
Drawn and Engraved for the Work. F'cap. 8vo, leather. Net 7/6 

" This well-compiled book contains a collection of the richest i;ems of usetul knowledge for 

the prospector's benefit. A special table is given to accelerate the spotting at a glance of minerals 

associated with gold."~-MintHg youmal. 


A Practical Treatise on the Metallurgical Treatment of Gold-bearing Ores. 
Including the Assaying, Melting, and Refining of Gold. By M. Eissler, 
A.I.M.E., M. Inst. M.M. Fifth Edition, Enlarged. With 300 Illustrations 
and Folding Plates. Medium 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. Net 21 /O 

" This book thoroughlv deserves Its title of a * Practical Treatise.' The whole process of gold 
milling, from the breaking of the quartz to the assay of the bullion, is described in clear and orderly 
nanranve and with much, out not too much, fulness of detaiL" — Saturday Review. 

" The work Is a storehouse of information and vzduable data, and we strongly recommend it 
to all professional men engaged in the gold-mining industry."— ilfm^M^ Journal. 


Including its Practical Application on the Witwatersrand Gold Fields and else- 
where. B^ M. EisSLSR, M.E. With Diagrams and Working Drawings. 
Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 8vo, cloth . Nei 7/6 

" This book is just what was needed to acquaint mining men with the actual working of a 
process which is not only the most popular, but Is, as a general rule, the most successful for the 
extraction of gold from tailings."— Jifm^M^ youmal. 


A Practical Handbook on the Use of Modem Diamond Core Drills in Pro- 
specting and Exploiting Mineral-Bearing Properties, including Particulars of 
the Costs of Apparatus and Working. By G. A. Denny, M.N.E. Inst. M.E., 
M.I.M. and M. Medium 8vo, 168 pp., with Illustrative Diagrams. 12/6 


Mr. Denny deserves grateful recognition for supplying a decided want. We strongly 
recommend every board of directors to carefully peruse the pa^es of this valuable volume of eminently 
practical data, which should be in the possession of those interested in mining."— J/mm^ youmtu. 


A Practical Manual for Prospectors and Miners. By W. H. Mbrritt, 
M.N.E. Inst. M.E., A.R.S.M., &c. Fcap. Svo, leather. Net 5/0 

" As an instructor of prospectors' classes Mr. Merritt has the advantage of knowing 
exactly the information likely to be most valuable to the miner in the field. The work will be a 
useful addition to a prospector's kit."— Mining youmal. 

" It gives the gist of the author's experience as a teacher of prospectors, and is a book which 
no prospector could use habitually without finding it pan out weHr^mSicotsman, 


A Guide for the Prospector and Traveller in search of Metal- Bearing or other 

Valuable Minerals. By J. W. Anderson, M.A. (Camb.), F.R.G.S. Ninth 

Edition. Crown Svo^ cloth, 3/6 i or, leather, pocket-book form. . 4/6 

" WUI supply a much-felt want, especially among Colonists, hi whose way are so often thrown 

many mineralogical specimens the value of which it is difficult to determine."— Ef^neer. 

'How to find commercial mlnotals, and how to identify them when they are found, are the 
leading points to whkh attention is directed. The author has managed to pack as much practfc»l 
detail into bis pages as would supply material Cor a book three times its sise.' —Mining yjuma?. 

B 2 


A Practical Treatise on the Amalgamation, Roasting, and Lixiviation of Silver 
Ores. Including the Assaying, Melting, and Refining of Silver Bullion. By 
M. EissLBR. Author of ^'The Metallurgy of Gold," &c. Third Edition. 
Crown 8vo, doth *! Q/Q 

" A practical treatise, and a technical woric which we are convinced will supply a long^-fdt 
want amongst practical men, and at the same time be of value to students and omers indirectly 
conneoted with the industries."— ^^m^nt journal. 

** From first to last the book is thoroughly sound and reliable."— C«i/tfe»7 GnartUan. 

" For chemists, practical miners, assayers, and investors alike we do not know of any work 
on the subject so handy and yet so comprehensive."— (r/ajyvw Htrald. 


Being an Account of Processes Adopted in the Hydro- Metallurgical Treat* 
ment of Cupriferous Ores, Including the Manufacture of Copper Vitriol, with 
Chapters on the Sources of Supply of Copper and the Roasting of Copper Ores. 
By M. EissLER, M.I.M.M. Medium 8vo, cloth. \,Just Publisfud. NefX^l^ 


A Practical Treatise on the Smelting of Silver-Lead Ores and the Refining of 
Lead Bullion. Includin|; Reports on various Smelting Establishments and 
Descriptions of Modern Smelting Furnaces and Plants in Europe and America. 
By M. EissLBR, M.E., Author of " The Metallurgy of Gold," a& Crown 8vo, 
400 pp., with 183 Illustrations, cloth \ 2/6 

" The numerous metallurgical processes, which are fully and extensively treated of, embrace 
all the stages experienced in the passage of the lead from the various natural states to its issue from 
the refinery as an article of vaaxoMK,^ ^Practical Bngineer. 

" The present volume fully maintains the reputation of the author. Those who wish to obtain 
a thorough insight into the present state of this industry cannot do better than read this volume, and 
all mining engineers cannot &il to find many useful hints and suggestions In 1t."—A$dHStriej. 


By D. C. Davibs, F.G.S. Sixth Ekiition, thoroughly Revised and much 
Enlarged by hb Son, E. Hbnry Davibs, M.E., F.G.S. 600 pp., with 173 
Illustrations. Large crown 8vo, cloth [Ji*st Published. Net 1 2/6 

" Neither the practical miner nor the general reader. In t e r es t ed in mines, can have a better 
book for his companion and his guide." — Minitig- ycurfuU. 

" As a history of the present state of mlnl^p throughout the world this book has a teal value, 
and It supplies an actual •<maxA."—AffuHaMfn. 


A Practical Treatise for Mining Engineers, Metallurgists, and Mamagers of 
Mines. By E. Hsnrv Davibs, M.E., F.G.S. Medium 8vo, cloth, ^ pp. 
With Folding Plates and other Illustrations. [J^st Published, Net 26/0 

" Mr. Davies, in this handsome volume, has done the advanced student and the manager of 
mines good service. Almost every kind of machinery in actual use is carefully described, and the 
woodcuts and plates are fp)od."—AtfteHaHtn. 

" From cover to cover the work exhibits all the same characteristics which excite the confi. 
dence and attract the attention of the student as he peruses the first page. The work may safely 
be recommended. By its publication the literature connected with the industry will be enriched 
and the reputation of its author enhanced. "—Mining yonmrni, 


By D. C. Davibs, F.G.S., Author of " Metalliferous Minerals," &c. Third 

Edition, Revised and Enlarged by his Son, E. Hbnky Davibs, M.E., F.G.S. 

With about zoo Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth 1 2/6 

" We do not remember to have met with any English work on mining nutters that contains 


the same amount of information packed In equally convenient form. 
" We should be Inclined to rank it as among the very best 01 
manuals which have recently appeared."— ^rMr/i Quarterly Review. 

We should be Inclined to rank it asamong the very best of the handy technical and trades 



A Treatise on the Hbtory, Discovery, Practical Development, and Fntnre 

Prospects of Metalliferous Mines in the United Kingdom. By Robert 

Hunt, F.R.S., late Keeper of Mining Records. Upwards of 950 pp., with 

230 Illustrations. Second Edition, Revised. Super*royal 8vo, clodi £2 2s. 

** The book is a treasure-house of statistical information on mining subjects, and we know of 

no other work embodsring so great a mass of matter of this Idnd. Were this the only merit of 

Mr. Hunt's volume it would be sufficient to render it indispensatde in the library of every one 

Interested in the development of the mining and metallurgical tndustiles of tnto country."— 



Comprising Rales, Formnlae, Tables, and Notes for Use in Field and Office 
Work. By F. Danvbrs Power, F.G.S., M.B. Second Edition, Corrected. 
Fcap. 8vo, leather. [Just Published. 9/0 

"This excellent book is an Bdmlrable example of its kind, and ou^t to find a lugp sale 
amongst EngUsh-spcAkingf prospectors and mining engineers. "-^Mtf^MMrfn^. 


A Handy Book of Reference on the subjects of Mineral Deposits, Mining 

Operations, Ore Dressing, &c. For the Use of Students and others interested 

in Minine Matters. By John Milne, F.R.S., Professor of Mining in the 

Imperial University of Japan. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo, leather . 7/6 

" Professor Milne's handbook is sure to be received with favour by all connected with 
mining, and will be extremely popular among students."— yf/AMurMm. 


Their Mode of Occurrence, Age and Origin, and the Methods of Searching for 
and Working Them. With a Notice of some of the Iron Ores of Spain. By 
J. D. Kendall, F.G.S., Mining Engineer. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 1 6/0 


A Complete Practical Treatise on Direct-Acting Underground Steam 
Pumping Machinery. By Stephen Michbll. Second Edition, Re-written 
and Enlarged, 390 pp. With 950 Illustrations. Royal 8vo, cloth, ^ei 526/0 

Summary of Conthnts :— Horizontal Pumping engines.— Rotary and Non 
Rotary horizontal Engines.— Simple and Compound Steam pumps.— Vertical 
Pumping Engines.- Rotary and Non-Rotary Vertical Engines.— Simple and 
Compound Steam pumps.— Triple-Expansion steam puvps.— Pulsating Steam 
PUMPS.— Pump Valves.— Sinking Pumps, Ac, &c. 

"This volume contains an Immense amount of important and interesting^ new matter. 
The boolc should undoubtedly prove of great use to all who wish for information on the sub- 
ject, inasmuch as the different patterns of steam pumps are not alone lucidly described and 
clearly illustrated, but in addition numerous tables are supplied, in which their sizes, capacity, 
price. Sec, are set forth, hence facilitating immensely the rational selection of a pump to suit 
any purpose that the reader may desire, or, on the other hand, supplying him with useful 
information about any of the pumps that come within the scope of the volume."— TA^ Engineer. 


A Practical Treatise for Mining Engineers. By Arnold Lupton, M.Inst.C.E., 
M.I.E.E., G. D. Aspinall Parr, M.I.£.E.,and Herbert Perkin, M.I.M.E. 
With a large number of Illustrations. Medium 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published. Net 7/6 


A C<»nprehensive Treatise on the Laying-out and Working of Collieries. 
Designed as a Book of Reference for Colliery Managers, and for the Use of Coal 
Mining Students preparing for First-class Certificates. By Caleb Pamely, 
Mining Engineer and Surveyor ; Member of the North of Eneland Institute of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers ; and Member of the South Wales Institute 
of Mining Engineers. With 700 Plans, Diagrams, and other Illustrations. 
Fourth Edition, Revised and Enlarged, medium 8vo, over 900 pp. 
Strongly bound £1 5s. 

Summary op Contbnts:—Gbology.— Search for Coal.— Mineral Leases 
AND other Holdings.— Shaft Sinking.— Fitting Up the Shaft and Surface 
Arrangements.— STBAk boilers and their Fittings.— Timbering and Walling.— 
Narrow work and Methods op Working. — Underground Conveyance. — 
Drainage.- The Gases met with in Mines ; Ventilation.— On the Friction op 

Air in Mines.— The Pribstman Oil Engine; Petroleum and Natural Gas 

Surveying and planning.— Safety Lamps and Firedamp Dbtbctors.— Sundry 
and incidental operations and appliances.- colliery explosions.— miscel- 

Commissioners on Accidents in Mines. 

" Mr. Pamely has not only given us a comprehensive reference boolc ot a veiy high order, 
suitable to the re<]uirements of muiinff engineers and colliery manaf^ers, but has also provided 
iBiningf students with a class-book that u as mterestinsf as it is instructive." — Colliery Managtr. 

" Mr. Pamely's work is eminently suited to the purpose for which it is intended, being clear, 
bteresdnsr, exhaustive, rich in detail, and up to date, giving descriptions of the latest machines in 
every department. A mining engineer could scarce^ go wrong who followed thb wotk."—CcllUry 

"This b the most complete 'all-round' work oo coal-mining published In the English 
language. ... No library of coal-mining books Is complete without tt."—ColUery Bnginetr 
Scnmtoo, Pa., U.S.A.K 



Comprisii^ the Duties of a Colfiery Ifanacer, the Ovcnight and Amnge- 
ment of Laboor and Wages, and the difierent Systems of Workup Coal 
SouBs. By H. F. Bulmam and R. A. S. Rkdmavnb. 350 pp., with 
s8 Plates and other lUnstratioas, faicfading Undogroiuid Photographs. 
If edinm Svo, doth. {Just PubUsksd. 16/0 

"TUs Is. Indeed, an adnlnble Handbook for CoBenr Msacets. Inbctit tsanbkHmensable 
to a Colbefy Maxiagets e dncari oo, as wcD as hmtg a aott asefiil and Int ero su n g wock 
ooTdke subject for aD who in any way have to do with coal ntnins. The undetsitNind photognphs 
aie an attnctive featuie of the woik, being veiy Hfelfte and neoeasaiiijr tme lepresentatioas of the 
scenes they ^epkX.'—C^Mery GmmrMmm. 

" Mr. Butanan and Mr. Re dmayne. who mm btgheKp erieaced O J ik i ' y Managers of great 
Bteiary abffity. are to be coogratnlated on harii^ snppBed ananthocltatfve work deafing with a SKle 
of the subject of coal mtmng wfakfa has hitherto l e cci r e d but scant treatment. The authors 

Of the subject of coal nuning wtadi has utnerto recci r c a out scant treatment, ine autnois 
ehicidate their text by in w o u d c ios and aB plates, most of tlie tatter being admiiafale reproductions 
of photographs taken undefgiuund wkh tfce aid of the iiitgiMiiiiim flash^iglit. These uhistratians 
are exc«ient.''^JMBiterc 


By the late Sir Wakington W. Smttr, F.R.S., Cluef In^iector of the 
Mines of the Crown. Kghth Edition, Revised and £ztended hy T. Fokster 
Brown, Mining Engineer, Chief Inspector of the Mines of the Crown and 
ofthe Duchy of Cora walL Crown 8vo, doth. ijnst PuifUsked. 3/6 

** As an outline is gi ren of evenr known coal-field In this and other countries, as well as « the 
principal mfthods of working, the book wiB doabdeas Interest a very large nuawber of raaden. •• 


By ToHM Hbxmam Mkkivalx, M.A., Late Professor of Mining in the Dmham 

College of Sdence, Newcastle>apon-Tyne. Fourth Edition, Revised and 

Enbiged. By H. F. Bulman, A.M.Inst.CE. Small crown 8vo, doth. 2/6 

" The author has done Us work In a creditable manner, and has produced a book that wiD 

be of service to students and those who are practically engaged In adning operations.' —Et^giitttr. 


(The Detection and Measurement of). By Fkank Clowxs, D.Sc., Lond., 
F.I.C., Prof, of Chemistry in the University College, Nottingham. With a 
Chapter on Ths Dbtsction and Mkasurbmsnt or Pktrolbum Vapour 
by BovBKTON RsDwooD, F.R.S.E., Consnlting Adviser to the Corporation 
of London under the Petroleum Acts. Crown 8vo. doth. Stt Q/Q 

~ Professor Clowes has ghren OS a Tolome on a subject of aanchmdustiial importance . . . 

Those Interested in these matters may be ro cwmwuied to stn<^ tliis book, which b ea^ of compre' 

henaion and contains many good things." — TTU Engineer^ 

" A book that no mining engineer —certainly no coal mhier can aCbrd to fgnoie or to leave 

vmead."— ^tM^H^ y»mfnml . 


Compriang a Description of the Coal Fields, and of the Prindpal Seams ot 
Coal^ with Returns of their Produce and its Distribution, and Analyses of 
Special Varieties. Also, an Account of the Occurrence of Iron Ores in Veins or 
Seams ; Analyses of each Variety ; and a History of the Rise and Progress of 
Pig Iron ManuiiEKrture. By Richard Mbadb. 8vo, doth . . £1 Sa. 
**Of this book we may onieserredly say that it is the best of its dass which we have ever 

met. ... A book of reference which no one engaged la the Iron or coal tmdes shook! ondt from 

his fibrary."— /rvM and C*mt Trmks " — ' — 


Their Properties. Occurrence, and Use. By Robbkt H. Tombs, F.S.A., 
Mineral<^^, Hon. Mem. Asbestos Club, Bbck Lake, C-anaW^ With 
Ten Cdlotjrpe Plates and other Illustrations. Demy 8vo, dc^ 

[Just FtMishtd, 16/0 

•' An Intevesting and faiTahiable worlc''~CW»kyy GwanMM. 


By Gborgb F. Harsis, F.G.S., Membre de la Sod&U Bdge de Gdoloeie, 
Lecturer on Economic Geology at the Birkbedc Institution, £c. With Ilhis- 

trations. Crown 8vo, doth 2/6 

*< A clearly and well-written manual for persons engaged orbtteiestod iatfie gnolte kidustry." 


For use in Mine Surveying. By W. Limtkrn, Mining Engineer. Crown 
Svcdoth. {Just PmiflttJUtt, Net 8/0 




Their History, Constmction, and Working. Founded in part on WGnschbn* 
dorff's " Traits de T^Ugraphie Sous*Marine," and Compiled from Authorita* 
tive and Exclusive Sources. By Charlbs Bright, F.R.S.E. Royal 8vo, 
780 pp., fully Illustrated, including Maps and Folding Plates, ^et £3 3ta 

"There are few, If any, persons more fitted to write a treatise on submarine telegraphy than 
Mr. Charles Bright. The author has done his woric admirably, and has written in a way wnich will 
appeal as much to the layman as to the engineer. This admirable volume must, for many years to 
come, hold the position of the English claaric on submarine telegraphy."— fi|ff>M»r. 

" Mr. Bright's interestingly written and admirably illustrated book wHl meet with a welcome 
reception from cable mein/*—SileetrictaH. 

" The author deals with his subject from all points of view— political and strategical as well as 
scientific. The work will be of interest, not only to men of science, but to the general public. We 
can strongly recommend It."— jltMenautn. 


By Samuel Sheldon. A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Physics and Electrical 
Enginerring at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, assisted hy Hobart 
Mason, B.S. 

In two volutnest sold separately, as follows : — 
Vol. I.— DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES. Third Edition, Revised. Large 
crown 8vo. 280 pagf s, with soo Illustrations. 

[Just Published, Net 12/0 

Vol. II.— ALTERNATING CURRENT MACHINES. Lar^e crown 8vo. 360 

pages, with 184 Illu<:trations. L/f^ Publuhed, Net 12/0 

Designed as Text-boolcs for use In Technical Educational Institutions, and by Eneineers 

whose work includes the handling of Direct and Alternating Current Machines respectively, and 

for Students proficient in mathematics. 


Consisting of Modem Rules. Formulae, Tables, and Data. By H. R. Kbmpb, 
M.Inst.£.E., A.M.Inst.C.E., Technical Officer Postal Telegraphs, Author of 
" A Handbook of Electrical Testing," &c Second Edition, Revised, with 
Additions. With numerous Illustrations. Royal samo, oblong, leather 6/0 

'* It is the best book of its V!ta±"—EUctHeal StigiMur. 

" The Electrical Engineer's Pocket-Book is a good oiM."SlecMciaM. 

" Strongly recommended to those engaged in the electilcal industries. "—fikcMcii/ Review, 


A Handbook for Working Electrical Engineers, embodjring Practical Notes on 
Installation Management. By J. W. Urquhart. With numerous Illustrations. 
Third Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth 8/0 

" This volume deals with what may be termed the mechanics of electric lighting, and is 
addressed to men who are already ei^aged in the work, or are training for it. The work traverses 
a great deal of ground, and may be r^a as a sequel to the same author's usefiil work on ' Electric 


Its Production and Use, Embod3ring Plain Directions for the Treatment of 
Dynamo-Electric Machines, Batteries, Accumulators, and Electric Lamps. 
By J. W. Urquhart, C.E. Sixth Edition, Revised, with Additions and 145 
Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. "JIQ 

" The whole ground of electric lighting Is more or less covered and explained In a very clear 
and concise manner."— f/ec^rios/ Review. 

" A voiie-mtcHm of the salient &cts connected with the science of eiectilc lighting."— 


A Practical Handbook for the Use of Engineer-Constructors and Electricians- 
in-Charge. Embracing Framework BuQding, Field Magnet and Armature 
Winding and Grouping, Compounding, &c. By J. W. Urquhart. Second 

Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 

" Mr. Urquhart's book is the first one which deals with these matters in such a way that the 
engineering student can understand them. The book is voy readable, and the author leads his 
realers up to difficult subjects by reasonably shnple tests."— SttgifueHMgr Review. 


For the Use of Electrical Engineers and Artisans, Teachers, Students, and all 
others interested in the Theory and Application of Electricity and Magnetism. 
Bv A. A. Atkinson, ProfessOT of Electricity in Ohio Universi'^y. Crown 8vo, 
doth. [Just Published. Net 9/0 


A First Year's Cou-se for Students and Workmen By Tyson Sewell, 
A I.E.E., Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Electrical Engineering at 
the Polytechnic, Regent Street, London. With upwards of 200 Illustrations. 
Demy 8vo, cloth. [Just Published, Net 7/6 


A Handy Book of Theory and Practice for the Use of Mechanics, Engineers, 

Students, and others in Chan;e of Dynamos. By G. W. Lummis-Patbrson. 

Second Edition, thoroughly Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth. 4/6 

" An example which deserves to be taken as a nuxlel by outer authors. The subject Is treated 

In a manner which any inteUigent man who is fit to be entrusted with charge of an engine should 

be able to understand. It is a useAil book to all who make, tend, or employ electric machinery. 


A Popular Encyclopaedia of Words and Terms Used in the Practice of Electrical 

Engineering. By T. O'Conor Sloane. A.M., Ph.D. Third Edition, 

with Appendix. Crown Svo, 680 pp., 390 Illustrations, cloth . JVei 7/8 

" The work has many attractive features fai it, and Is, beyond doubt, a well put together and 
nsefiil publication. The amount of ground covered may be gathered from the fact that in the index 
about 5,600 references will be fwauV'—SUtirieati RevUm. 


A Handbook on the Practical Fitting and Rtmning of Ships' Electrical Plant. 
For the Use of Shipowners and Builders, Marine Electricians, and Seagoing 
Engineers-in-Charge. By J. W. Urquhakt, C.E. Second Edition, Revised 
and Extended. 3^ pp., with 88 Illustrations, Crown 8vc, cloth . 7/6 

"The subject of ship electric Ughtin£ is one of vast importance, and Mr. Urquhart is to be 
hlf^hly complimented for placing such a valuable work at the sovlce of marine electricians."— 7>r« 


A Practical Handbook on the Erection and Running of Small Installations, 
with Particulars of the Cost of Plant and Working. By J. H. Knight. 
Third Edition, Revised. Crown Svo, wrapper. \Jus,t Published. I/O 


By Alan A. Campbell Swinton, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.E.E. Fourth Edition, 
Revised. With z6 Illustrations. Crown Svo, cloth. [fust Published. 1/6 


Bv Philip Atkinson, A.M., Ph.D., Author of "Elements or Static 
Electricity," &c. Crown Svo, 4x7 pp., with xao Illustrations, cloth . 1 0/6 


And applied by the Electric Motor, including Electric Railway Construction. 
By P. Atkinson, A.M., Ph.D. Third Edition, Fully Revised, and New 
Matter added. With 94 Illustrations. Crown Svo, cloth . . //ft 9'0 


A Practical Treatise for Amateurs. Containing numerous Illustrations and 
Detailed Instructions fw Constructing a Small Dynamo to Produce the 
Electric Light. By Alfrbd Ckofts. Sixth Ekiition, Revised and Enlarged. 
Crown Svo, cloth. [Just Published, 2/0 


By H. M. NoAD, F.R.S. Cheaper Edition. 650 pp., with 470 Illustrations 
Crown Svo, cloth 9/0 




A Handbook for Students Preparii»; for Examinations, and a Book of 
Reference for Persons Engaged in Building. By John Parnbll Allkn, 
Surveyor, Lecturer on Building Construction at the Durham College of 
Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
Medium 8vo, 450 pp., with Illustrations, cloth. [Just Published. 7/6 

" The most complete exposition of building construction we have seen. It contains all that is 
necessary to prepare students for the various examinations in buildinsr construction."— Aw^/aMNif 

" The author depends nearly as much on his diagrams as on his t]rpe. The pages suggest 
the hand of a man of experience m building operations— and the volume must be a oleasing to 
many teachers as well as to students."— rA« Architect. 

" The work is sure to prove a formidable rival to great and small competitors alike, and 
bids fair to take a permanent place as a favourite student's text-book. The large number of illus- 
trations deserve particular mention fur the great merit they possess for purposes of reference in 
exactly corresponding to convenient scales."— 7(9MrMa/4/^M< Koyal InstUuii t/ British ArdtUtets. 


A Guide to the Art of Stone Cutting. Comprising the Construction, Setting 
Out, and Working of Stairs, Circular Work, Arches, Niches^ Domes, Penden* 
tives, Vaults, Tracery Windows, &c., &c. For the Use of Students, Masons, 
and other Workmen. Bv William R. Purchase, Building Inspector to the 
Borough of Hove. Third Edition, with Glossary of Terms. Royal 8vo, 142 pp., 
with 53 Lithographic Plates, comprising nearly 400 separate Diagrams, 
cloth. [Just Published. 7/6 

"Mr. Purchase's 'Practical Masonry' will undoubtedly be found useful to aS interested in 
this important subject, whether theoretically or practically. Most of the examples given are from 
actual work carried out, the diagrams being carefully drawn. The book is a practical treatise on 
the subject, the author himself having commenced as an operative mason, and afterwards acted as 
foreman mason on many large and important buildings prior to the attainment of his present 
position. It should be found of general utility to architectural students and others, as well as to 
those to whom it is specially addressed."— y^Mfwa/ ^ths Rcyal JnstittUe ^British Architects. 



A New Practical Work for the Plumber, the Heating Engineer, the Architect, 
and the Builder. By J. J. Lawler, Author of " American Sanitary Plumbing," 
&c. With 384 Illustrations and Folding Plates. 4to, cloth. 

[Just Published. Net 21/- 


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Private and Horticultural Buildings. By Walter Jones. Second fkiition. 

With 96 Illustrations, crown 8vo, cloth Ntt 2/6 

" We confidently recommend all interested hi heating by hot water to secure a copy of this 
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A Book for Architects, Builders, Contractors, and Clerks of Works. ^ By 
George L. Sdtclipfe, A.R.I.B.A. 350 pp., with numerous Illustrations. 
Crown Svo, cloth 7/6 

" The author treats a difficult subject in a ludd manner. The manual fills a long-felt gap. 
It Is careful and exhaustive ; equally useful as a student's guide and an architect^ book of 
reference. "—^Ekwrwo/ o/'the Royal InstittUe o/ British Architects. 

" There is room for this new book, which will probably be fior some time the standard work 
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A Compn-ehensive Handbook of the Latest Prices and Data for Builders. 
Architects, Engineers, and Contractors. Re-constructed, Re-written, ana 
Greatly Enlarged. By Francis T. W. Miller. 800 closely-printed pages, 
crown 8vo, dcui 4/0 

" This book Is a very useful one. and should find a place in every English office connected 
with the building and engmeering professions."— /tuAMllriw. 

" An excdlent book of reference."— ^rcM<lr£r. 

"In its new and revised form tlUs Price Book is what a work of this fcbid should be— compre- 
hensive, ndiable, well arranged, legible, and well bound. "— J?fiMrA Architect. 



By Sir William Chambbrs, F.R.S. With Portrait, Illustrations, Notes, and 
an Examination of Grbcian Architbcturb, by Josbph Gwilt, F.S.A. 
Revised and Edited by W. H. Lbbi>s. 66 Plates, 4to, cloth . . 21/0 


A Treatise on Applied Mechanics, especially Adapted to the Use of Architects. 
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Being a Series of Designs for Villa Residences in various Styles. With 

Outline Specifications and Estimates. By C. Wickbs, Architect. 6x Plates, 

4to, half-morocco, gilt edges £1 lis. 6o. 

" The whole of the desl^rns bear evidence of their beinsf the work of an artistic architect, and 
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Being a Text-book of Useful Information for Architects, Engineers, Surveyors, 
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Third Edition. Crovm 8vo, cloth 3/6 


The whole Course and Operations of the Draughtsman in Drawing a Large 

House in Linear Perspective. Illustrated by 43 Folding Plates. By F. O. 

Fbrguson. Second Edition, Enlarged. 8vo, boards .... 3/6 

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Slie Student's Guide to the Practice oO> Containing Directions for taking 
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Tables of Constants for valuation of Labour, and for the Calculation of Areas 
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by E. W. Tarn, M.A. Seventh Edition, Revised. With 8 Plates and 
63 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo, cloth. ijust Published. 7/6 

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and Drains, and an Easy Method of Estimating the parts of a Building 
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gilt edges 1/6 

" No builder, architect, surveyor, or valuer should be without his ' Beaton.' "'—BuUtUHgr News. 


A Guide to the Architect, Engineer, Surveyor, and Builder. \^th an E^ssay 
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cloth 15/0 

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Being a Practical Account of the Various Modem Biological Methods of 
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A Handbook for the Use of Local Authorities, Sanitary Officers, and others 
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A Guide to Sanitary Practice and Law. For Medical Officers of Health, 
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A Treatise on the Pressure and Equilibrium of Timber Framing, the Resistance 
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and Properties of Timber, &c., with Descriptions of the kinds of Wood used 
in Buildmg ; also numerous Tables of the Scantlings of Timber for different 
purposes, the Specific Gravities of Materials, &c. By Thomas Tredgold, C.E. 
Witn an Appendix of Specimens of Various Roofs of Iron and Stone, Illus- 
trated. Seventh Edition, thoroughly Revised and considerably Enlarged by 
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With 6i Plates, Portrait of the Author, and several Woodcuts. In One large 
Vol., 4to, cloth 26/0 

"Ought to be In every architect's and every builder's library."-— Aw^/iiicr. 

"A work whose monumental excellence must commend it wherever skilful carpentry Is 
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Its Rise, Progress, and Construction. With Hints on the Management of Saw 
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M. Powis Balb, A.M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E. Second Edition, Revised, 
with large Additions, large crown 8vo, 440 pp., cloth .... 9/0 

" Mr. Bale is evidently an expert on the subject, and he has collected so much information 
that his book is all-sufficient tot builders and others engfaged in the conversion of timber. "—Architect. 

" The most comprehensive compendium of wood- working machinery we have seen. The 
author is a thorough master of his sa\i\ecX."—BuildiMgr News. 


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Timber. By M. Powis Bale, A.M.Inst.C.E. Second Edition, Revised. 

Crown 8vo, cloth. [Jint Published. 1 0/6 

" The odmiHistreUioH of a large sawing establishment is discussed, and the subject examined 

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converted state. We could not desire a more complete or practical treatise."— i^MtlMcr. 


Or, Book of Lines for Carpenters ; comprising all the Elementary Principles 
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With 74 Plates, 4to, cloth .... ... £1 1 a. 


Showing New and Simple Methods for Finding the Pitch of the Plank, Drawing 
the Moulds, Bevelling, Jointing-up^ and Squaring the Wreath. ^ By George 
CoLLiNGS. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged^ to which is added 
A Treatise ON Stair-building. With Plates and Diagrams . . 2/6 

" Will be found of practical utility in the execution of this difficult branch of Joinery. "—^Mt&i^. 
" Almost every difficult phase of this somewhat intricate branch of Joinery is elucidated by 
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A Practical Treatise on Circular Work of Single and Double Curvature. By 
George Collings. With Diagrams. Third Edition, xamo, cloth . 2/6 


An excellent example of what a book of this Idnd should be. Cheap In price, dear in 
definition, and practical in the examples selected."— ^M^/^r. 



By Richard Bitmbad. Illustrated with Plans, Sections and Working 
Drawings. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published, 2/6 



On the Sqnare-Cut System. By J. S. Goldthorp, Head of Building 
Department, Halifax Technical School. With Eight Plates and over 150 
Practical Exercises. 4to, cloth 3/6 

" Likely to be of considerable ralae to Joiners and others who take a pride in gofxl work. 
The arrangement of the book is eacelleot. We heartily commend It to teachers and studmts."— 
Timber iTxuUs youmal. 


Containing New and Copious Tables of the Reduced Weight and Measure* 
ment of Deals and Battens, of all sizes, from One to a Thousand Pieces, and 
the relative Price that each size bears per Lineal Foot to any given Price per 
Petersburgh Standard Hundred ; the Price per Cube Foot of Square Timber 
to any given Price per Load of 50 Feet, &c., &c. By William Dowsing. 
Fourth Edition, Revised and Corrected. Crown 8vo, cloth . . 3/0 

" We are glad to see a fourth edition of these admirable tables, which for correctness and 
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A Guide for the Use of Building Contractors, Surveyors, Builders, &c., 

comprising useful Tables for all purposes connected with the Timber Trade, 

Marks of Wood, Essay on the Strength of Timber, Remarks on the Growth of 

Timber, &c. By W. Richardson. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo, cloth . 3/6 

"Contains much yaluable information for timber merchants, buUders, foresters, and all 
others connected with the growth, sale, and manufactoie of timber."— y^wrwo/ ^Forestry. 


Showing the number of Superficial Feet in Boxes or Packing-Cases, from six 
inches square and upwards. By W. Richardson, Timber Broker. Third 

Edition. Oblong 4to, cloth 3/6 

" Invaluable labour-saving tables."— /r0M«ff0n^«r. 


Tables calculated from x to aoo inches in length hy x to xo8 inches in breadth. 

For the use of Architects, Surveyors, Engmeers, Timber Merchants, 

Builders, &c. By Jambs Hawkings. Fifth Edition. Fcap., cloth. 3/6 

" A useful collection of tables to &cilitate rapid calculation of surfaces. The exact area of 
any surface of which the limits have been ascertained can be instantly determined. The book will 
be found of the greatest utility to all engaged in building operations. —%Scne»na«(. 


And its Bearing on the Improvement of Estates. By Charles E. Curtis, 
F.S.I., Professor of Forestry, Field Engineering, and General Estate 
Management, at the College of Agriculture, Downton. Second Ekiition, 
Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth. [/m/ Published. 3/6 

ING.— DISTANCES AND Distribution of Trees in plantations.— trees and Ground 
Game.— ATTENTION after Planting.— Thinning of Plantations —Pruning of 
Forest Trees.— Realization.— Methods of Sale.— Measurement of Timber.— 
Measurement and Valuation of Larch Plantation.— Firb Lines.— Cost of 

" Mr. Curtis has in the course of a series of short pithy chapters afforded much informa- 
tion of a useful and practical character on the planting and subsequent treatment of trees."— 
lUustrated Carpenter and Builder. 


Designed to afford Information conceminp^ the Planting and Care of Forest 
Trees for Ornament or Profit, with suggestions upon the Creation and Care of 
Woodlands. By F. B. Hough. Large crown 8vo, cloth . • . 1 0/O 



By Richard E. Grandy. Comprising :— An Analysis of Deal Standards, 
Home and Foreign, with Comparative Values and Tabular Arrangements for 
fixing Net Landed Cost on Baltic and North American Deals, mcludmg all 
intermediate Expenses, Freight, Insurance, &c.; together with copious Informa- 
tion for the Retailer and Builder. Third Edition, xamo, cloth . 2/0 





As Taught and Practised by A. R. Van dbr Burg and P. Van dbr Burg, 
Directors of the Rotterdam Painting Institution. Royal folio, iS^ by 12^ in., 
Illustrated with 24 full-size Coloured Plates ; also xa plain Plsues, comprising 
154 Figures. Third Edition, cloth. \ Just Published. £1 lis. 60. 

List OF Platbs :— x. Various Tools Rbquirbo for wood painting.— >, 3. Walnut ; 
Preliminary Stages of Graining and Finished Specimen.— 4. Tools Used for 
Marble Painting and Method of Manipulation.— 5, 6. St. rbmi Marble; 
Earlier Operations and Finished Specimen. — 7. Methods of Sketching 
Different Grains, Knots, &c.— 8, 9. Ash: Preliminary Stages and Finished 
SPECIMEN.— la Methods of sketching marble Grains — ix, xa. Brbche marble ; 
Preliminary Stages of Working and Finished specimen.— is. Maple ; Methods 
OP Producing the Different Grains.— 14, 15 Bird's*Eyb maple; Preliminary 
Stages and Finished specimen.- 16. Methods op sketching the Different 
species of White Marble.— 17, x8. White Marble ; Preliminary Stages of 
Process and Finished Specimen.— 19. Mahogany; Specimens of Various Grains 
AND Methods of Manipulation.— ao, ax. Mahogany ; Earlier Stages and 
Finished Specimen.— aa, as, 34. sienna marble; Varieties of Grain, Preliminary 
Stages and Finished Specimen.— «$, a6, 37. Juniper wood; methods of Pro- 
ducing Grain, &c. ; Preliminary Stages and Finished specimen.— aS, ao. aa Vert 
DE Mer Marble; Varieties of Grain and Methods of Working, unfinished 
AND Finished Specimens.— sx, 3a, 33. Oak ; Varieties of Grain, Tools Employed 
AND Methods of Manipulation, preliminary stages and Finished specimen.— 



" Those who destie to attain skQl in the art of painting woods and marbles will find advantage 
In consulting this book. . . . Some of the WorUng Men's Qubs should give their young men 
the opportimity to study iL"—BuiUl€r. 

" A comprehensive guide to the art. The explanations of the processes, the manipulation 
and management of the colours, and the beautifiilly executed plates will not be the least valuable to 
the student who aims at making his work a falthiiil transcript of nature."— ^imZA'm^ News. 

"Students and novices are fortunate who are able to become the possessors of so noble a 
week."— r*c ArtfUUa. 


A Guide to the Simpler Forms of Everyday Art. Together with PRACTICAL 
HOUSE DECORATION. By Iambs W. Facby. With numerous Illus- 
trations. In One Vol., strongly naif-bound ff /O 



A Practical Manual of. By Ellis A. Davidson. Eighth Edition. With 
Coloured Plates and Wood Engravings. lamo, cloth boards . . 8/0 

" A mass of Information of use to the amateur and of value to the practical maa."—Eng-iirk 


A Modem Guide for Decorative Artists and Amateurs, Painters, Writers, 
Gilders, &c. Containing upwards of 600 Receipts, Rules, and Instructions ; 
with a variety of Information for General Work connected with every Class of 
Interior and Exterior Decorations, &c. Seventh Edition. 152 pp., cr. 8vo. 1 /O 

" Full of receipts of value to decorators, painters, gilders, &c. The book contains the gist of 
larger treatises on colour and technical processes. It would be difficult to meet with a work so ftill 
of varied information on the painter's 9Xt."^BuildiHg News. 


And the Terminology of British and Foreign Marbles. A Handbook for 
Students. By Gborgb H. Blagrovb, Author of " Shoring and its Applica- 
tion," &c. With a8 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth .... 3/6 

"This most useful and much wanted handbook should be in the hands of every architect and 
buHdar."— AmAW^v ff^*rU. 

" A carefully and usefully written treatise ; the work is essentially pncticaL''Scotsman, 





From the Eighth Century, with Numerals; includinp; Gothic, Church-Text, 
large and small, German. Italian, Arabesque, Initials for Illumination, 
Monograms, Crosses. &c., sc, for the use of Architectural and Engineering 
Draughtsmen, Missal Painters, Masons, Decorative Pamters, Lithographers. 
Engravers, Carvers, &c., &c. Collected and Engraved by F. Dblamottb, and 
printed in Colours. New and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, 

ornamental boards 2/6 

'* For those who insert enazneUed sentences round gilded chalices, who blazon shop legrends 

over shop-doors, who letter church walls with pithy sentences from the Decalogue, this book will be 

usefiil. "—Athenaum. 


Including German, Old English, Saxon, Italic, Perspective, Greek, Hebrew, 
Couj t Hand, Enp;rossingj Tuscan, Riband, Gothic, Rustic, and Arabesque ; 
witli several Original Designs, and an Analysis of the Roman and Old English 
Alphabets, large and small, and Numerals, for the use of Draughtsmen, 
Surveyors, Masons. Decorative Painters, Lithographers, Engravers, Carvers, 
&c. Collected ancl Engraved by F. Dblamottb, and printed in Colours. 
New and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, omamentsd boards . 2/6 
" There is comprised in it every possible shape into which the letters of the alphabet and 

numerals can be formed, and the talent which has been expended in the conception ot^the various 

plain and ornamental letters is ytooAsxiuL"— Standard. 



By F. G. Delamottb. Containing 21 Plates and Illuminated Title, printed 
in Gold and Colours. With an Introduction by J. Willis Brooks. Fourth 
and Cheaper Edition. Small 4to, ornamental boards .... 4/0 

"A volume in which the letters of the alphabet come forth glorified In gilding and all the 
colours of the prism interwoven and intertwined and intermingled, "-^mw. 


For the Use of Beginners ; with a Rudimentary Treatise on the Art, Practical 
Directions for its Exercise, and Examples taken from Illuminated MSS., 
pointed in Gold and Colours. By F. Dblamottb. New and Cheaper 
Edition. Small 4to, ornamental boards 6/0 

" The examples of ancient MSS. reqommended to the student, which, with much good sense, 
the author chooses from collections accessiole to all, are selected with Judgment and knowledge as 
well as tasX»."—Athenaunt. 


Containing Initials^ Emblems, Cyphers, Monograms, Ornamental Borders. 
Ecclesiastical Devices, Mediaeval and Modern Alphabets, and National 
Emblems. Collected by F. Dblamottb, and printed n Colours. Oblong 

royal 8vo, ornamental wrapper 1/6 

"The book will be of great assistance to ladies and young children who are endowed with 
the art of plying the needle in this most ornamental and useful pretty vmr)L."—JBast jln£-/iaH Tiffus. 


With Hints on Design. By A Lady. With xo Plates. New and Cheaper 

Edition. Crowai 8vo, in emblematic wrapper 2/0 

" The handicraft of the wood-carver, so well as a book can Impart it, may be leamt from * A 
Lady's ' puhiicatioa."—AtheHaMtn. 


By Thomas John Gullick, Painter, and John Timbs, F.S.A. Including 
Fresco, Oil, Mosaic, Water-Colour, Water-Glass, Tempera, Encaustic, 
Miniature, Painting on Ivory, Velltim, Pottery, Enamel, Glass, &c Fifth 
Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth 6/0 

*«* Adopted as a Prizt Book at South Kensington, 

" Much may be learned, even by those who fancy they do not require to be taught, from the 
careful perusal ot thii unpretending but compreheiisive treatise."— ^r/ yourttaL 




Chapters on the Origin and Constmction of the Heavens. By J. E. Gokh, 
F. R. A. S. , Author of ^' Star Groups, " &c. Illustrated by 6 SteUar Photographs 
and za Plates. Demy 8vo, cloth 1 6/0 

** A valuable and lucid sununafy of nccnt astronomical theoiy, rendered moie valuable and 
attiactlve by a series of stellar photographs and other Qlustratioas."— TA^ Tintts. 

"In presenttnj^ a clear and condse account of the present state of our knowledge Mr. Gore 
has made a valuable addition to the literature of the subject."— AIoE^lMfv. 

" Mr. Gore's * Visible Universe ' is one of the finest works on astronomical science that have 
recently appeared in our language. In spirit and in method It is scientific from cover to cover, but 
the style Is so clear and attractive that it will be as acceptable and as readable to those who make 
no scientific pretensions as to those who devote themselves specially to matters astioaomicaL"^ 
Leeds Mercmry. 


A Student's Guide to the Constellations. By J. Bllard Gorb, F.R.A.S., 

M.R.I.A., &c., Author of "The Visible Universe," "The Scenery of the 

Heavens," &c. With 30 Maps. Small 4to, cloth 6/0 

" The volume contains thirty maps showfaig stars of the dzth magnitude— the usual naked-eye 
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to notice objects of special interest. For the purpose of a preliminary survey of the ' midnight 
pomp ' of the heavens nothing could be better than a set of delineations averagiug scarcely twenty 
square inches in area and including nothing that cannot at once be identified."— ^Mwnebiy Review. 


Or, Dictionarv of Terms used in Astronomy. With Tables of Data and Lists 
of Remarkable and Interesting Celestial Objects. By J. Ellaro Gorb, 
F.R.A.S., Author of " The Visible Universe," &c Small crown 8vo, cloth. 


"A very useful little work fbr beginners In astronomy, and not to be despised by more 
advanced students."— 7*4k< Times. 

" A very handy book . . . the utility of which Is much bicreased by Its valuable tables of 
astronomical data."— ^Mmmcmm. 


Its Construction and Management. Including Technique, Photo-micrography, 
and the Past and Future of the Microscope. By Dr. Henri van Heurck. 
Re-Edited and Augmented from the Fouith French Exlition, and Translated 
by Wynne £. Baxter, F.G.S. 400 pp., with upwards of 250 Woodcuts, 
imp. 8vo, cloth 1 8/0 

" A translation of a well-known work, at once popular and comprehensive."— TlfoMAr. 
" The translation is as felicitous as it is accurate. —Ao^Mrc. 


Bv the late Rev. Robert Main, M.A., F.R.S. Third Edition, Revised by 
William Thynnb Lynn, B.A., F.R.A.S., formerly of the Royal Observatory, 

Greenwich, xamo, cloth 2/0 

" A sound and simple treatise, very carefully edited, and a capital book for beginners."— 

"Accurately brought down to the requirements of the present time by Mr. Lynn.''— 
EducoHgnai Times. 


A Treatise on Recent and Fossil Shells. By S. P. Woodward, A.L.S., 
F.G.S. With an Appendix on Recent and Fossil Conchological 
Discoveries, by Ralph Tate, A.L.S., F.G.S. With 23 Plates and 
upwards of 300 ^¥oodcuts. Reprint of Fourth Edition (x88o). Crown 8vo, 

doth 7/6 

" A most valuable storehouse of conchological and geological Information.''— «SWl0Mr G«ssip. 


Or, Geology and Genesis, their Perfect Harmony and Wonderful Cononrd. 
By G. W. V. LB Vaux. 8vo, cloth 5/0 

** A val u able contribution to the evidences of Revelation, and cUaposes very conclusively of 
the arguments of those who would set God's Works against God's Word. No real difficulty Is 
shirked, and no sophistry Is left unexposed."— rA* Rock. 



By Dr. Lardnbr. Enlarged and re-written by Benjamin Lobwt, F.R.A.S. 
378 Illustrations. Post 8vo, cloth 6/0 

" The perspicui^ of the original has been retained, and chapters which had become obsolete 
have been replaced by others of more modem character. The explanations throug^hout are 
studiously popular, and care has been taken to show the application of the various branches of 
physics to the industrial arts, and to the practical business of life."— Af«'»«Vi;f youmal, 


By Dr. Lardnbr. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged by Benjamin Loewt. 

F.R.A.S. With 236 Illustrations. Post Svo, cloth .... 6/0 

"For those 'who desire to attain an accurate knowledge of physical science without the 
profound methods of mathematical investigation,' this work is well adapted." — Chemical News, 


By Dr. Lardnbr. Edited and re-written by Benjamin Loewt, F.R. A.S., &c. 
XX7 Illustrations. Post 9vo, cloth 6/0 

" The strle is alwavs clear and precise, and conveys instruction without leaving any cloudiness 
or lurking doubts \xib!ixia."—-Engineering. 


By Dr. Lardnbr. New Edition. Edited by T. Olver Harding, B. A. Lond. 

with 298 Illustrations. Small Svo, 448 pp., cloth fi/O 

" Written by one of the ablest English scientific writers, beautifully and elaborately illustrated. " 
'—Mecfianics' Magujtine. 


By Dr. Lardnbr. Edited by Geo. Carey Foster, B.A., F.C.S. With 
400 Illustrations. Small 8vo, cloth 5/0 

" The book could not have been entrusted to any one better calculated to preserve the terse 
and lucid style of Lardner, while correcting his errors and bringing up his work to the present 
State of scientliic knowledge."— /V^Atr Scitnce Review, 


By Dr. Lardnbr. Fourth Edition. Revised and Edited by Edwin Dunkin, 
F.R.A.S., Royal Observatory, Greenwich. With 38 Plates and upwards of 
xoo Woodcuts. Svo, cloth 9/6 

"Probably no other book contains the same amount of information in so compendious and 
well arranged a form— certainly none at the price at which this is offered to the ^^3^Slac:"—Athenaufn■, 

" we can do no other than pronounce this work a most valuable manual of astronomy, and 
we strongly recommend it to all who wish to acquire a general — but at the same time correct- 
acquaintance with this sublime ^Kxextc^"— Quarterly youmal of Science. 


Edited by Dr. Lardnbr. With upwards of i,aoo Engravings on Wood. In 
Six Double Volumes, £1 1 s. in a new and elegant cloth binding ; or hand* 

somely bound in half-morocco £1 Ha. 60. 

" A cheap and interesting publication, alike informing and attractive. The papers combine 

•uUects of importance and great scientific knowledge, considerable inductive powers, and a popular 

style sAXxe^CfDietA."— Spectator. 

SeparaU books formed from the above. 

Common Things Explained. 5s. 
The Microscope. 25. cloth. 
Popular Geology. 35. 6d. cloth. 
Popular Physics. 2s. 6d. cloth. 

Steam and its Uses. 35. cloth. 
Popular Astronomy. 45. 6d. cloth. 
The Bee and White Ants. 2s. cloth. 
The Electric Telesrraph. z5. 6d. 


By Dr. Lardner. Fcap. Svo 3/6 

"A very convenient class book for junior students in private schools."— BrMth Quarterly 


By Dr. Lardner. Fcap. Svo 8/6 

** Clearly written, well arranged, and excellentiy Wustxated."— Gardener's Chronicle. 


By Dr. Lardner. Revised by £. B. Bright, F.R.A.S. Fcap. Svo. . 2/6 
" One of the most readable books extant on the Electric Telegraph."— fw^/irA Mechanic. 

L. C 




Comi>rising Tables, Notes and Memoranda relating to the Manufacture, 
Distribution and Use of Coal Gas and the Construction of Gas Works. By 
H. O'CoHNOR, A.M.Inst.C.E. Second Edition, Revised. 470 pp., crown 8vo, 
fully Illustrated, leather. [Just Published, 10/6 

" The book contains a vast amount of infomution. The author eoes consecutively throagrh 
the engineering details and practical methods involved in each of the different processes or parts 
of a gas-works. He has certainly succeeded in making a compilation of hard matters of fact 
absolutely interesting to read."— <raj fVorld. 

' A useful worlc of reference for the gas engineer and all interested in lighting or heating by 

5 as, while the analyses of the various descriptions of gas will be of value to the technical chemist. 
kD matter in any way connected with the manufacture and use of gas is dealt with. Th^ book has 
evidently been carefully compiled, and certainly constitutes a useful addition to gas literature."— 


"The volume contains a great quantity of specialised information, compiled, we bdieve, from 
trustworthy sources, which should make it of considerable mlue to those for wiiom it is specifically 
^ito&aceA. —Enginetr. 


Generators, Burners, and Electric Furnaces. By William E. Gibbs, M.E. 
With 66 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [fust PublisketL 7/6 


A Practical Treatise for the Use of Analytical Chemists, Engineers, Iron 
Masters. Iron Founders, Students and others. Comprising Methods of Anal]^ 
and Valuation of the Principal Materials used in Engineerinz Work, with 
Analyses, Examples and Suggestions. By H. J. Phillips, F .I.C, F.C.S. 
Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 420 pp., with Plates and 
other Illustrations, cloth. [Just Published. IVet "tOIS 

" In this work the author has rendered no small service to a numerous body of practical 
men. . . . The analytical methods may be pronounced most satisfectory, being as accurate as the 
despatch required of engineering chemists permits."— CA<«M»ca/ News. 

" Full of good things. As a handbook of technical analysis, it is very ynicomK."—Sit*Uer. 

" The analytical methods given are, as a whole, such as are likely to give rapid and trust- 
worthy results in experienced hands. . . . There is much excellent descriptive matter in the work, 
the chapter on ' Oils and Lubrication bring specially noticeable in this *9SpoeL''—Bti£i»uer, 


A Practical Treatise concerning the Properties, Manufacture, and Analjrsis 
of Nitrated Substances, including the Fulminates, Smokeless Powders, and 
Celluloid. By P. G. Sanpord, F. I.C. , Consulting Chemist to the Cotton Powder 
Company, &c With Illustrations. Crown 8vo, doth. [Just Published. Q/O 

" Any one having the requisite apparatus and materials could make nitro-g^3rcerine or gun- 
cotton, to say nothing of other explosives, by the aid of the instructions in this volume. Tlus is 
one of the very few text-books in which can be found just what is wanted. Mr. Sanford goes 
through the whole list of explosives commonly used, names any given explosive, and tcdls us of what 
it is composed and how It is manufactured. The book is excdleat throughout."— JSm^'mmt. 


A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture and Use of D^amite, Gun-Cotton, 

Nitro-Glycerine and other Explosive Compounds, includmg Collodion-Cotton. 

With Chapters on Explosives in Practical Application. By M. Eisslbr, 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgical Chemist. Second Edition, Enlarged. 

With 150 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. [/m^ Published. 1 2/6 

" Useful not only to the miner, but also to officers of both services to whom blasting and the 
ose of explosives generally may at any time become a necessary auxiliary."— Aiot/tofv. 


Their Sources and Properties, Modes of Storage and Transport. With Notes 
and Comments on Accidents arising therefrom, together with the Government 
and Railway Classifications, Acts of Parliament, Sc. A Guide for the Use of 
Government and Railway Officials, Steamship Owners, Insurance Companies 
and Manufacturers, and Users of Explosives and Dangerous Goods. By 
H. Joshua Phillips, F.I.C, F.C.S. Crown 8vo, 374 pp., cloth . . 9/0 
Merits  wide drculatioii. and an inteOigeat, sppiedative study.'— CAcMto/ ASrwr 


Including the Manufacture of Sulphuric Add, Sulphate of Soda, and Bleaching 

Powder. By John Lomas, Alkali Manufacturer, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 

London. 3^ pp. of Text. ^ With 33a Illustrations and Working Drawings, 

Second Edition, with Additions. Super-royal 8vo, cloth . £*! 1 Qsa 

" This book is written by a manufacturer for manufacturers. The workine details of the most 

approved forms of apparatus are given, and these are accompanied by no less than 332 wood 

engravings, all of which may be used for the purposes of construction. Eveiy step in the maau- 

Cacture is veiy fully described in this manual, and each improvement explaxaed. —AtMenautH. 

" We nnd not merely a sound and luminous explanation of the chemical principles of the 
trade, but a notice of numerous matters which have a most important bearing on the successful 
conduct of alkali works, but which are generally overlooked by even experienced technological 
authors."— CA^mftCo/ Review, 



Containing all known Methods of Anhydrous Analysis, many Working 
Examples, and Instructions for Making Apparatus. By Lieut. -Colonel W. A. 
Ross, R.A., F.G.S. With xao Illustrations. Second Edition, Enlarged. 
Crown 8vo, cloth 6/0 

" The student who goes conscientiously through the course of experimentation here laid down 
will gain a better insight into inoiganic chemistry and mineralogy than if he had * got up ' any of the 
best text-books of the day, and passed any number of examinations in their cxxccks^' ■—Chemical 


Their Properties, Applications, Valuations, Impurities and Sophistications. 

For the Use of Dyers, Printers, Drysalters, Brokers, &c. By J. W. Slater. 

Second Edition, Revised and greatly Enlarged. Crown 8vo, doth . 7/6 

" A complete encyclopaedia of the nuUeria Hnctoria. The information ^ven respecting each 

article is full and precise, and the methods of determining the value of articles such as these, so 

liable to sophistication, are given with clearness, and are practical as well as valuable."— CA«mtx< 

" There is no other work which covers precisely the same ground. To students preparing 
for examinations in dyeing and printing it will prove exceedingly useful."— CA«m^k»/ News. 


Being a Practical Guide to the Art of Brewing and Malting. ^ Embracing the 
Condusions of Modem Research which bear upon the Practice of Brewing. 
By Hbrbbrt Edwards Wright, M.A. Second Edition, Enlarged. Crown 
8vo, 530 pp., cloth. [Ji^t Published. 1 2/6 

" May be consulted with advantage by the student who is preparing himself for examinational 
tests, while the scientific brewer will find in it a risumi of all the most important discoveries of 
modem times. The work is written throughout in a clear and concise manner, and the author 
takes great care to discriminate between vague theories and well-established izcXs."—Br€w*rs' 

" We have great pleasure in recommending this handy book, and have no hesitation in saying 
that it is one of the best— if not the best— which has ]ret been written on the subject of beer-brewing 
in this country ; it should have a place on the shelves of every brewer's ]ihnry."SfTwerr 

" Although the requirements of the student are primarily considered, an acquaintance of half- 
an-hour's duration cannot fail to impress the practical brewer with the sense of having found a 
trustworthy guide and practical counsellor in brewery matters."— CAMmon/ Trtule youmal, 


Their Analysis and Valuation. For the Use of Chemists and Engineers. By 

H. J. Phillips, F.C.S., formerly Analytical and Consulting Chemist to the 

G.E. Rlwy. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth 2/0 

"Ought to have its place in the laboratory of every metaUuigical establishment and wherever 

fuel is used on a lasge scafa. "—Cfumical Ntws, 


Showing their Composition, Conditions of Permanency, Non-Permanency, and 

Adulterations ; Effects in Combination with Each Other and with Vehides ; 

and the most Reliable Tests of Purity. By H. C. Standagb. Crown 8vo. 2/6 

" This work is indeed tnu/tufn-in-parvo, and we can, with good conscience, recommend it to 

all who come in contact with pigments, whether as makers, dealers, or users."— CA<»f«M»/ Review. 

C a 



Containing Tables, Rules, and Memoranda for Revenue Officers, Brewers, 
Spirit Merchants, &c. By J. B. Mant, Inland Revenue. Second Edition, 
Revised. x8mo, leather 4/0 

" This handy and useful book is adapted to the requirements of the Inland Revenue Depart' 
meat, and will be a favourite book of reference."— C^cvVian. 

" Should be in the hands of every practical hnemvt."—Bm»*rs' youmat. 




A Descriptive Treatise on the Mechanical Appliances required in the 
Cultivation of the Tea Plant and the Preparation of Tea for the Market. By 
A. J. Wallis-Taylbk, A. M. Inst. C.£. Medium 8vo, 468 pp. With siB 
Illustrations. {Just Published. Ntt 25/0 

summary of contents : — mechanical cultivation or tillage of the 
soil.— plucking or gathering the leaf.— tea factories.— the dressing, 
Manufacture, or Preparation of Tea by Mechanical Means.— Artificial 


AND APPARATUS.— Final treatment of the tea.— Tables and Memoranda. 

" The subject of tea machinery is now one of the first interest to a large class of people, to 
whom we stronj^iy commend the yo\uvo.B."— Chamber o/Comnurce youmal. 

" When tea planting was first introduced into the British possessions little, if any, machinery 
was employed, but now its use is almost universaL This volume contains a very full account of the 
machinery necessary for the proper outfit of a factory, and also a description of the processes best 
carried out by this machinery."- y^MfTta/ Society o/Arts. 


A Treatise on Milling Science and Practice. By Fribdrich Kick, Imperial 
Regierungsrath, Professor of Mechanical Technology in the Imperial German 
Poljrtechnic Institute, Prague. Translated from uie Second Enlarged and 
Revised Edition with Supplement. By H. H. P. Powlbs, Assoc. Memb. 
Institution of Civil Engineers. Nearly 400 pp. Illustrated with 28 Folding 
Plates, and 167 Woodcuts. Rojral 8vo, cloth £1 fis, 

"This valuable work is, and will remain, the standard authority on the science of milling. . . . 
The miller who has read and dig^ested this work will have laid the foundation, so to speak, of a 
successful career ; he will have acquired a number of general principles which he can proceed to 
apply. In this handsome volume we at last have the accepted text-book of modem milling in good, 
sound English, whkh has little, if any, trace of the German idiom."— TIXm MiUer. 


A Manual of Practical Instruction of the Processes of Opening, Carding, 
Combing, Drawing, Doubling and Spinning of Cotton, the Methods of 
Dyeing, &c For the Use of Operatives Overlookers, and Manufacturers. 
By John Lister, Technical Instructor, Pendleton. 8vo, cloth . . 7/6 

" A distinct advance in the literature of cotton manufacture."- Afa<AsM<ry. 

" It Is thoroughly reliable, fulfilling nearly all the requirements desired."— GAur^vw Htrald. 


A Practical Handbook on their Construction and Repair. By A. J. Wallis* 
Tayler, a. M. Inst. C. £., Author of " Refrigerating Machinery," &c With 
upwards of 300 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, clotL \Ju&t Pubhshtd. 1 0/6 

" The laree trade that is done in the component parts of bicycles has placed in the way of 
men mechanically inclined extraordinary facilities for builmng bicycles for their own use. . . . The 
book will prove a valuable guide for all those who aspire to the manufacture or repair of their own 
machines.'*— 7Vk< ^f^/tf. 

"A most comprehensive and up-to-date treatise."— TAc CycU. 

" A very useful book, which is quite entitled to tank as a standard work for students of cycle 
constructior . — IVheelins'. 



A Practical Guide to the Manufacture and Application of the various Aggluti* 
nants required in the Building, Metal- Working, Wood-Working, and Leader- 
Working Trades, and for Workshop, Laboratory or Office Use. With upwards 
of 900 Recipes and Formula. By H. C. Stakdagb, Chemist. Third Edition. 
Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 2/0 

"We have pleasure in speaking favourablv of this volume. So far as we have had 
experience, which Is not inconsiderable, this manual is txustwoxttiy."—AtHeHaunt. 

" As a revelation of what are considered trade secrets, tms book will arouse an amount of 
curiosity among the large number of industries it touches."— Daily Chronicle. 


A Practical Handbook of the Manufacture of Hard and Soft Soaps, Toilet 
Soaps, &c. Including many New Processes, and a Chapter on the Recovery of 
Glycerine from Waste Leys. By Alx. Watt. Sixth Edition, including an 
Appendix on Modem Candlemaking. Crown 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published. 7/8 
"The work will prove very useful, not merely to the technological student, but to the 
practical soap boiler who wishes to understand the theory of his axt."— Chemical News. 

" A thoroughly practical treatise on an art which has almost no literature in our languaj^e. 
We congratulate the author on the success of his endeavour to fill a void in English teoiiucal 
Vumban,"— Nature. 


A Manual for Paper-Makers and Owners and Managers of Paper-Mills. Witk 
Tables, Calculations, &c. By G. Clappbrton, Paper-Maker. With Illus- 
trations of Fibres from Micro-Photographs. Crown 8vo, cloth . . S/0 
" The author caters for the requirements of responsible mill hands, apprentices, &&, whilst 
his manual will be found ofgreat service to students of technology, as well as to veteran paper- 
makers and mill owners. The illustrations form an excellent feature."— 77i« fVorld's Paper Tnule 

" We recommend everybody interested in the trade to get a copy of this thoroughly practical 
book."— ^a/«r MeMng. 


A Practical Handbook of the Manufacture of Paper from Rags, Esparto, 
Straw, and other Fibrous Materials. Including the Manufacture of Pulp from 
Wood Fibre, with a Description of the Machinery and Appliances used. To 
which are added Detaib of Processes for Recovering Soda from Waste Liquors. 
By Alexander Watt. Author of " The Art of Soap-Making." With Illus- 
trations. Crown Svo, cloth 7/6 

"It may be rM:arded as the standard work on the subject. The book is full of valuable 
information. The ' Art of Paper-Making ' is in every respect a model of a text-book, either for a 
technical class, or for the private student, —/'a/^r and Printing TreuUs youmcU. 


For Printers and Stationers. With an Outline of Paper Manufacture ; Complete 
Tables of Sizes, and Specimens of Different Kinds of Paper. By Richard 
Parkinson, late of the Manchester Technical School. Demy Svo, cloth. 

[Just Published. 3/6 


Being a Practical Handbook, in which the Operations of Tanning, Currying, 
and Leather Dressing are fully Described, and the Principles of Tanning 
Explained, and many Recent Processes Introduced ; as also Methods for the 
Estimation of Tannm, and a Description of the Arts of Glue Boiling. Gut 
Dressing, &c. By Albxander Watt, Author of " Soap-Making, ' &c. 
Fourth Edition. Crown Svo, cloth 9/0 

" A sound, comprehenstve treatise on tanning and its accessories. The book Is an eminently 
raloable production, which redounds to the crecut of both author and publishers."— CA««Mica/ 


A Practical Handbook, including Measurement, Last- Fitting, Cutting-Out, 
Closing and Making, with a Description of the most approved Machinery 
Employed. By John B. Lend, late Editor of St. Crispin, and Ths Boot and 
Sho$'Mak*r. xamo, cloth 2/0 



A Practical and Easy Introduction to the Study of the Art. By W. N. Brown. 
i2mo, cloth 't /6 

** The book is clear and complete, and will be uaefial to any one wanting to understand the 
fiist dements of the beautifiil art ot wood eagtaLviDg."—Gra/Mc 


Translated from the French of Claudius Saunibr, ex-Director of the School 
of Horology at Macon, hy Julien Tripplin, F.R.A.S., Besancon Watch 
Manufacturer, and Edward Kigg, M.A., Assayer in the Royal Mint. With 
Seventy-eight Woodcuts and Twentv-two Coloured Copper Plates. Second 
Edition. Super-royal 8 vo, doth, £2 2 s. ; half-calf . . £2 lOs. 

" There is no horological work in the English language at all to be compared to this produc- 
tion of M. Sa'uiier's for clearness and completeness. It is alike good as a guide for the stuoBnt and 
as a reference for the experienced horologist and skilled workman." — fforolcgicai Voumal. 

" The latest, the most complete, and the most reliable of those literary productions to which 
continental watchmakers are indebted for the mechanical superiority over their English brethren 
»4n fact, the Book of Books, is M. Saunier's ' Treatise.' "—fVatehmaJter, y€W€lUr,€tndSiiversmitk. 


A Practical Guide for the Watch and Chronometer^ Adjuster in Making, 
Springing, Timing and Adjusting for Isochronism, Positions and Temperatures. 
By C. £. Fritts. 370 pp., with Illustrations, 8vo, cloth . . .1 6/0 


Intended as a Workshop Companion for those engaged in Watchmaking and 
the Allied Mechanical Arts. Translated from the French of Claudius 
Saunibr, and enlarg^ed by Julien Tripplin, F.R.A.S., and Edward 
RiGG, M.A., Assayer m the Royal Mint. Third Edition. 8vo, cloth. 9/0 

"Each part is trulv a treatise in itself. The arrangement is good and the language is clear 
and concise. It is an aomirable guide for the young •w9XcYuaakax."—Eruiin€ering. 

" It is impossible to speak too highly of its excellence. It fulfils every requirement In a 
handbook intended for the use of a workman. Should be found fai every workshop. —/f^o/cA and 


By Jambs F. Kendal, M.B.H. Inst. Boards, 1/6; or cloth, gilt . 2/6 
" The best which has yet appeared on this subject in the English language."— /ndttstries. 
" Open the book where you may, there is interesting matter in it concerning the ingenious 
devices of the ancient or modem hoxw>gtx."—Satur{iay Keview. 


Being a new edition of Alexander Watt's " Electro-Deposition." Re- 
vised and Largely Rewritten by Arnold Philip, B.Sc, A.I.E.E., Principal 
Assistant to the Admiralty Chemist. Large Crown 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published. Net, 12/6 

"Eminently a book for the practical worker in electro-deposition. It contains practical 
descriptions of methods, processes and materials, as actually pursued and used in the worinhop."— 


Practically Treated. By Alexander Watt. Tenth Edition, including the 

most recent Processes. z2mo, cloth 3/6 

" From this book both amateur and artisan may learn everything necessary for the successful 
prosecution of electroplating."— /tom. 


A Practical Treatise for Masters and Workmen, Compiled from the Experience 
of Thirty Years' Workshop Practice. By George E. Gee, Author of " The 
Goldsmith's Handbook," &c. Crown 8vo, cloth 7/6 


w j> "^^'*J?^?^ °^ technical education Is apparently destined to be a valuable auxiliary to a 
handicraft which is certainly capable of great improvement"— rA« Timts. 



A Practical Handbook on the Deposition of Copper, Silver, Nickel, Gold, 

Aluminium, Brass, Platinum, &c., &c. By J. W. Urquhart, C.£. Fourth 

Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth. l/ust Published. 6/0 

" An excellent practical manuaL" — Engineering: 

" An excellent work, giving: the newest information."— i70fv/<i;ica/ youm€U, 


The Reproduction and Multiplication of Printing Surfaces and Works of Art 
by the £lectro-Deposition of Metals. By J. W. Urquhart, C.E. Crown 8vo, 

cloth 6/0 

" The book is thoroughly practical ; the reader Is, therefore, conducted through the leading 

laws of electricity, then through the metals used by electrotypers, the apparatus, and the depositing 

processes, up to the final preparation of the work.*^— ^r^ journal. 


By George E. Gee, Jeweller, &c. Fifth Edition, zamo, cloth . . 3/0 

"A good, sound educator, and will be generally accepted as an xathotity.^—iforelagiceU 


By George E. Geb^ Jeweller, &c. Third Edition, with numerous Illustra- 
tions, zamo, cloth 3/0 

"The chief merit of the work is its practical character. . . . The workers in the trade will 
speedily discover its merits when they sit down to study it." — English Mecftinic 

\* Tht abov* two works together, strongly half-bound, pries 7s. 


Comprising a Selection of Geometrical Problems and Practical Rules for 
Describing the Various Patterns Required by Zinc, Sheet- Iron, Copper, and 
Tin-Plate Workers. By Reuben Henry Warn. New Edition, Revised and 
greatly Enlarged by Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.M.E. Crown 8vo, 354 pp., 
with 430 Illustration?, cloth. [Just Published, 7/6 



Including a large variety of Modem Recipes. With Remarks on the Art of 

Bread-making. By Robert Wells. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 2/0 

*' A large number of wrinkles for the ordinary cook, as well as the hakiet."—Saturday Review. 


For Hotels, Restaurants, and the Trade in general, adapted also for Family 
Use. By R. Wells, Author of " The Bread and Biscuit Baker." Crown 8vo, 

cloth 2/0 

" We cannot speak too highly of this really excellent work. In these days of keen oompetition 
our readers cannot do better than purchase this hook."— Bakers' Times. 


A Guide for Bakers, Confectioners and Pastrycooks ; includine a variety of 
Modem Recipes, and Remarks on Decorative and Coloured Work. With lao 
Original Designs. By Robert Wells. Second Edition. Crown 8vo . 6/0 


' A valuable work, practical, and should be in the hands of every baker and confectioner. 
The Illustrative designs are alone worth treble the amount charged for the whole work."— Bakers* 



Containing a large Collection of Recipes for Cheap Cakes, Biscuits, &c. With 
remarks on the Ingredients Used in their Manufacture. By Robert Wells, 
Authorof "The Bread and Biscuit Baker," &c. Crown 8 vo, cloth . 2/0 

" The woric is of a decidedly practical character, and in every recipe regard is had to economical 
woiUng."— JV^rC* British Daily Mail. 


And the Manipulation of Rubber. A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of 
Indiarubber Hand Stamps, Small Articles of Indiarubber, The Hektograph, 
Special Inks, Cements, and Allied Subjects. By T. O'Conor Sloane, A.M., 
Ph.D. With numerous Illustrations. Square 8vo, cloth. . 6/0 




Editor of " Work " (New Series), Author of " Lathe Work," " Milling Machines, ' &c 

Crown 8vo, 144 pp., price is. each. 
Thest Handtbooks have bun mritUn to supply information for Wokkm bn. 
Students, and Amateurs in the several Handicrafts, on the actiial Practice of 
the Workshop, and are intended to convey in plain language Technical Know- 
ledge of the several Crafts. In describing the processes employed, and the manipu- 
lation of material, workshop terms are used ; workshop practice isfuUy explained ; 
and the text is freely illustrated with drawings of modem tools, appliances^ and 


A Practical Manual for Workers at the Foot-Lathe. With over zoo Illas« 

trations • • • • 1/0 

" The book will be of service alike to the amateur and the artisan turner. It displays 
tborou^ knowledge of the subject. "—sScoCrmaf*. 


A Practical Manual fen: Workers at the Lathe. With over xoo Illustrations. 


" We recommend the book to young turners and amateurs. A multitude of workmen have 
hitherto sought in vain for a manual of this special industry."— Af«cAanic«/ tVorld. 


A Practical Manual on Cleaning, Repairing, and Adjusting. With upwards of 

100 Illustrations I/O 

" We strongly advise all young persons connected with the watch trade to acquire and study 
this inexpensive •woA."—CUrkeH'w*u Chronicle. 


A Practical Manual on the Construction of Patterns for Founders. With 

upwards of 100 Illustrations I/O 

^ A most valuable, if not indispensable manual for the pattern xcakxx."—Knowl€dgt. 


A Practical Manual on Mechanical Manipulation, embracing Information 
on various Handicraft^ Processes. With Useful Notes and Miscellaneous 

Memoranda. Comprising about 200 Subjects I/O 

"A very clever and useful book, which should oe found in every workshop ; and it should 
certainly find a place in all technical schools."— So/Mfvbiy Review. 


A Practical Manual on the Construction of Model Steam Engines. With 

upwards of 100 Illustrations. 1/0 

" Mr. Hasluck has produced a very good little book."— ^imA^. 


A Practical Manual on Cleaning, Repairing, and Adjusting. With upwards of 

100 Illustrations . . 1/0 

" It is of inestimable service to those commencing the \xdA<^"—CevtHtry Standard. 


A Practical Manual on the Tools, Materials, Appliances, and Processes 

employed in Cabinet Work. With upwards of xoo Illustrations . 'I/O 

" Mr. Hasluck's thorough-going little Handybook is amongst the most practical guides we 
have seen for beginners in cabmet-wonc" — Saturday Review. 



Embracing Information on the Tools, Materials, Appliances and Processes 

Employed in Woodworking. With 104 Illustrations I/O 

Opinions of the Press. 
" Written by a man who knows, not only how work ought to be done, but how to do It, and 
bow to convev his knowledge to i3iCa/t.T%."'— Engineering. 

" Mr. Hasluck writes admirably, and gives complete instructions."— JSTfijenrfMer. 
" Mr. Hasluck combines the experience of a practical teacher with the manipulatlTe skill and 
scientific Icnowledge of processes of the trained mechanician, and the manuals are marvels of what 
can be produced at a popular price. "—sScAMo/maxitfr. 

" Helpftil to workmen of all ages and d^rees of experience."— Z)«tf/> ChronieU, 
W**^^^ sensible, and remarkably cheap."— yowrm/^fi^MasMm, 
' Condse. clear, and practicaL"— SaA«td<i> Review. 

• 4 




TABLES, &c. 


By Professor R. Gambaro, of the Royal High Commercial School at Genoa. 

£dited and Revised by Jambs Gault, Professor of Commerce and Commercial 

Law in King's College, London. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth . 3/6 

" The pubUsbers of this work have rendered considerable service to the cause of commercial 

education by the opportune production of this volume. . . . The work is peculiaurly acceptable to 

Ei^Ush readers and an admirable addition to existing class books. In a phrase, we think the work 

attams its object in fumishingf a brief account of those laws and customs of British trade with which 

the commercial man interested therein should be {asoS&ax"— Chamber cf Commerce Journal. 

" An invaluable guide in the hands of those who are preparing: for a commercial career, and. 
In fact, the information it contains on matters of business should be impressed on every one."— 
CounHng House. 


Being Aids to Commercial Corresi>ondence in Five Languages — English, 
French, German, Italian, and Spanish. By Conrad E. Baker. Thu-d 
Edition, Carefully Revised Throughout. CroMm 8vo, cloth. 

\Just Published. 4/6 

" Whoever wishes to correspond in all the languages mentioned by Mr. Baker cannot do 
better than study this work, the materials of which are excellent and conveniently arranged. They 
coi^st not of entire specimen letters, but— what are fiar more useful— short passages, sentences, or 
phrases expressing the same general idea in various forms." — AOututum, 

" A careful examination has convinced us that it is unusually comfdete, well arranged and 
reliable. The book is a thoroughly good aa6."-~Schoclmaster. 


A Handbook for Accountants and Manufacturers, with Appendices on the 
Nomenclature of Machine Details ; the Income Tax Acts ; the Rating of 
Factories ; Fire and Boiler Insurance ; the Factory and Workshop Acts, &c, 
including also a Glossary of Terms and a large number of Specimen Rulings. 
By Emile Garckb and J. M. Fells. Fifth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 
Demy 8vo, clobh. ' [Just Published. 7/6 

" A very interesting description of the requirements of Factory Accounts. . . . The principle 
of assimilating the Factory Accounts to the general commercial books is one which we thoroughly 
agree -mih."— Accountants' youmal. 

" Characterised by extreme thoroughness. There are few owners of factories who would not 
derive great boidSt from the perusal of this most admirable yroAJ'— Local Government ChronicU. 


A Manual of the Metrical Units and Systems of the present Century. With 
an Appendix containing a proposed English System. By Lewis D. A. 
Jackson, A. M. Inst. C. E., Author of " Aid to Survey Practice," &c. Large 

crown 8vo, cloth 1 2/6 

"We recommend the work to all interested in the practical reform of our weights and 
measures. "—Nature. 


In which the British Standard Measures and Weights are compared with those 
of the Metric System at present in Use on the Continent. ByC. H. Dowling, 

C.E. 8 vo, strongly bound 10/6 

" Mr. DowQng's Tables are weU put t<%ether as a ready reckoner for the conversion of one 
system into the ot)iies."—Athenaum. 


For Expeditiously Ascertaining the Value of any Goods bought or sold by 
Weight, from is. per cwt. to 112s. per cwt., and from one farthing per pound to 
one shilling per pound. By Thomas Downib. 396 pp., leather . . 9/0 

" A most useful set of tables, nothing like them before existed."— i?w«/tf»n^ News. 

" Although specially adapted to the iron and metal trades, the tables will be found usefid in 
every other buaness in which merchandise Is bought and sold by weight."— ^a«/«Mi> News. 



Containing upwards of 350,000 Separate Calculations, showing at a Glance the 
Value at 423 Different Rates, ranging from j\jth of a Penny to 30s. each, <»: per 
cwt., and £20 per ton, of any number of articles consecutively, from x to 470. 
Any number of cwts., ors., and lbs., from z cwt. to 470 cwts. Any number of 
tons, cwts., qrs., and lbs., from x to x,ooo tons. By William Chajdwick, 
Public Accountant. Third Edition, Revised. 8vo, strongly bound . 1 8/0 

" It is as easy of reference for any answer or any number of answers as a dictionary. For 
making up accounts or estimates the boolc must prove mvaluable to all who have any considerable 
quantity of calculations involving price and measure in any combination to do."—£Htri*mr. 

'* The most perfect woric of the kind yet prepared."— <rAu-^vw Herald. 


Being a Series of Tables upon a New and Comprehensive Plan, exhibiting at 
one Reference the exact Value of any Weight from x lb. to 15 tons, at 300 
Progressive Rates, from \d. to x68s. per cwt., and containing x86,ooo Direct 
Answers, which, with their Combinations, consisting of a single addition 
(mostly to be performed at sight), will afford an aggregate of 10,366,000 
Answers ; the whole being calctuated and designed to ensure correctness and 

Sr<xnote despatch. By Henry Harbbn, Accountant. Fifth Edition, carefriUy 
orrected. Koyal 8vo, strongly half-bound £1 fit. 


A practical and useful work of reference for men of business generally."— /ronvn^M^vr. 
Of^ priceless value to buaness men. It is a necessary book in all 1 

priceless value to business men. It is a necessary book in all mercantile offices."— 
Sh^ffMd Indt^endtnt. 


Comprising several Series of Tables for the Use of Merchants, Manufacturers, 
Ironmongers, and Others, by which may be ascertained the Exact Profit arising 
from any mode of using Discoimts, either in the Purchase or Sale of Goods, ana 
the method of either Altering a Rate of Discount, or Advancing a Price, so as 
to produce, by one operation, a sum that will realise any required Profit after 
allowing one or more Discounts : to which are added Tables of Profit or 
Advance from i^ to 90 per cent., Tables of Discount from zi to gSf per cent., 
and Tables of Commission, &c., from | to xo per cent. By Henry Harbbn, 
Accountant. New Edition, Corrected. Demy 8vo, half-bound . £1 6s. 

" A book such as this can only be appreciated by business men, to whom the saving of time 
means saving of money. The work must prove of great value to merchants, manufiacturers, and 
general tnAxn,"— British Trade youmal. 


At 54, 5a, 50 and aZ Hours per Week. Showing the Amounts of Wages from 
One quarter of an hour to Sixty-four hours, in each case at Rates of Wages 
advancing by One Shilling from 45. to 55s. per week. By Thos. Garbutt, 
Accountant. Square crown 8vo, half-bound 6/0 


For Iron Shipbuilders, Engineers, and Iron Merchants. Containing the 
Calculated Weights of upwards of 150,000 different sizes of Iron Plates from 
X foot by 6 in. by ^ in. to xo feet by 5 feet by x in. Worked out on the Basis of 
40 lbs. to the square foot of Iron of x inch in thickness. By H. Burlinson 
and W. H. Simpson. 4to, half-bound £1 6s. 


Comprising Commutation and Conversion Tables, Logarithms, Cologarithms, 
Antiiogarithms and Reciprocals. By J. W. Gordon. Koyal 8vo, mounted 
on canvas, in cloth case. [Jms^ Published. 6/0 





A Compendium of Husbandry. Originally Written by William Youatt. 
Fourteenth Edition, entirely Re-written, considerably Enlarged, "and brought 
up to Present Requirements, by William Fream, LL.D., Assistant Com- 
missioner, Royal Commission on Agriculture, 1893, Author of " The Elements 
of Agriculture," &c. Royal 8vo, 1,100 pp., with over 450 Illustrations, 
handsomely bound. { Jusi Published. £1 lis. 60. 

Summary of contents. 

MENT OF Cattle. 


AND Management of Horses. 


BOOK V. ON THE Breeding. Rearing, 


BOOK VI. ON THE Diseases of live 








Opinions of the Press on the New Edition. 

" Dr. Fream Is to be congratulated on the successful attempt he has made to give us a work 
which will at once become the standard classic of the £aurm practice of the countnr. We believe 
that it will be found that it has no compeer among the many works at present in existence. . . 
The illustrations are admirable, while the frontispiece, which represents the well-known bull. 
New Year's GUt, owned by the Queen, is a work of art "—77k Tittus. 

" The book must be recognised as occupsring the proud position of the most exhaustive work 
of reference in the English laxiguage on the subject with which it de8]s."—Athe*ueum. 

"The most comprehensive guide to modem farm practice that exists in the English language 
to-day. . . . The tx)ok is one that ought to be on every farm and in the library of every land 
owner."— Afar>( Latu Express. 

" In point of exhaustiveness and accuracy the work will certainly hold a pre-eminent and 
unique position among books dealing with scientific agricultural practice. It is, in fact, an agricul- 
tural library of itseiL'— North British Agriculturist. 


Bt Robert Wallace, F.L.S., F.R.S.E.. &c., Professor of Agriculture and 
Rtural Economy in the University of Edinourgh. Third Edition, thoroughly 
Revised and considerably Enlarged. With over lao Phototypes of Prize 
Stock. Demy 8vo, 384 pp., with 79 Plates and Maps, cloth. . . 1 2/6 

** A really complete work on the history, breeds, and management of the farm stock of Great 
Bdtahi, and one which is likely to find its way to the shelves of every country gentleman's library." 
"The Times. 

" The latest edition of ' Farm Live Stock of Great Britain ' is a production to be proud of, and 
Its Issue not the least of the services which its author has rendered to agricultural science."— 
Scottish Fartntr. 



By Primrosb McConnelx^ B.Sc, Fellow of the Highland and Agricultural 

Society, Author of " Elements of Farming." Sixth Edition, Re- written, Revised, 

and greatly Enlarged. Fcap. Bvo, 480 pp., leather. {.Just Published. 6/0 

Summary of contents : Surveying and Levelling. — Weights and 

MEASURES. — Machinery and Buildings. — Labour. — Operations. — Draining. — 

Embanking.— geological memoranda.— Soils.— manures.— Cropping.— Crops.— 

Rotations. — weeds.— Feeding. — Dairying.— Live Stock. — Horses. — Cattle. — 

Shbkp.— Pigs.— POULTRY.— Forestry.— Horticulture.— Miscellaneous. 

" No farmer, and certainly no agricultural student, ought to be without this muUunt-iiupa*vo 
manual of all subjects connected with the farm." — North British Agriculturist. 

"The amoimt of information it contains is most surprising ; the arrangement of the matter is 
so methodical— although so compressed— as to be intell^ble to evtssyone who takes a glance through 
its pages. They teem with information." — Farm and Home. 


A Scientific Aid to Practical Farming. By Primrose McConnell, Author 
of •' Note-Book of Agricultural Facts and Figures." Royal 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published. Net 21 /O 

" On every page the work bears the impress of a masterly knowledge of the subject dealt 
with, and we have nothing but unstinted praise to offer."— 7*« Field. 


A Handy Volnme on the Work of the Dairy- Famu For the Use of Technical 
Instruction Classes, Students in Agricultural Colleges and the Working Dairy< 
Fanner. By Prof. J. P. Sheldon. With Illustrations. Second Edition, 
Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth. [ Just Published. 2/6 

" Confidently recommended as a useful text-book on dairy tagBaiag."—A£ricuUural Geutette. 

" Probably the best half-crown manual on dairy work that has yet been produced."— i\r«rA 
British AericuUurisL 

" It IS the soundest little work we haye yet seen on the subjecL"— 7^ Times. 


A Practical Handbook on their Properties and the Processes of their Produc> 
tion. Including a Chapter on Cream and the Methods of its Sej^ration from 
Milk. By John Oliver, late Principal of the Western Dauy Institute, 
Berkeley. With Coloured Plates and 200 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth. 


" An exhaustive and masterlv production. It may be cordially recommended to all students 
and practitioners of dairy science. —Al^r^/t British Agriculturist. 

" We recommend this very comprehensive and carefully-written book to daiiy-Sarmers and 
students of dairying. It is a distinct acquisition to the library of the agriculturist. —Agriculturai 


Or, The Lessons of My Farm. Being an Introduction to Modem Farm 
Practice for Small Farmers. By R. Scott Burn, Author of " Outlines of 
Modern Farming," &c. Crown 8vo, cloth 6/0 

" This is the completest book of its class we have seen, and one idiich every amateur former 
will read with pleasure, and accept as a gui'dM."— Field. 


By R. Scott Burn. Soils, Manures, and Crops — Farming^ and Farming 
Economy — Cattle, Sheep, and Horses — Management of Dair^, Pigs, and 
Poultry — Utilisation of Town-Sewage, Irrigation, &c. Sixth Edition. In One 
Vol., 1,350 pp., half-bound, profusely Illustrated 1 2/0 


Comprising Draining and Embanking \ Irrigation and Water Supplv ; Farm 
Roads, Fences and Gates ; Farm Buildings ; Barn Implements and Machines ; 
Field Implements and Machines ; Agricultural Surveying, &c. By Professor 
John Scott. In One Vol., 1,150 pp., half-boimd, with over 600 Illustrations. 


" Written with great care, as well as with knowledge and ability. The author has done his 
work well ; we have found him a very trustworthy guide wherever we have tested his statements. 
The volume will be of great value to agricultural students." — Mark Lane Express. 


A Text-Book of Agriculture. Adapted to the Syllabus of the Science and 

Art Department. For Elementary and Advanced Students. By Hugh 

Clements (Board of Trade). Second Edition, Revised, with Additions. 

x8mo, cloth 2/6 

" It is a long time since we have seen a book which has pleased us more, or which contains 
such a vast and useful fund oi)Daoyf\edg,e."— Educational Times. 



With a New System of Farm Book-keeping. By Sidney Francis. Fifth 

Edition. 372 pp., waistcoat -pocket size, limp leather . . . •1/6 

" Weighing less than x oz., and occupying no more space than a match-box, it contains amass 
of focts and calculations which has never before, in such handy form, been obtainaUe. Eveiy 
operation on the farm is dealt with. The work may be taken as thoroughly accurate, the whole of 
the tables having been revised by Dr. Fream. We cordially recommend iV^BelTs tVeeJU 



Part I. Stock. Part IL Crops. By C. J. R. Tipper. Crown 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published, 3/6 

" We have no doubt that the took will be wekomed by a large class of fanners and othevs 
interested in agnculture."— Scsntian/. 


A Handbook for the Practical Fanner. By Bernard Dyer, D.Sc. (Lond.)> 
With the Text of the Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Act of 1893. &c. Third 
Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth. [Just Published. 1 /O 

"This little book is precisely what it professes to be— 'A Handboolc for the Practical 
Farmer.' Dr. Dyer has done farmers good service in placing at their disposal so much useftti 
Infonnation in so mteUigible a form."— 7%^ Times. 


A Guide to the Manipulation of Bees, the Production of Honey, and the 
General Management of the Apiary. By G. Gordon Samson. With 
numerous Illustrations. Crown Svo, wrapper 1/0 


A Practical Treatise, presenting, in Three Plans, a System adapted for all 
Classes of Farms. By Johnson M. Woodman, Chartered Accountant. 

Fourth Edition. Crown Svo, cloth 2/6 

" The volume is a capital study of a most important subject,"— •AgrieuUural GajtetU. 


Giving Weekly Labour Accotmt and Diary, and showing the Income and 
Expenditure under each Department of Crops, Live Stock, Dairy, &c., &c. 
With Valuation, Profit and Loss Account, ana Balance Sheet at the End of the 
Year. By Johnson M. Woodman, Chartered Accountant. Second Edition. 

FoUo, haUr-bonnd Ntt 7/6 

"Contains every requisite form for keeping fiurm accounts readily and accurately. "» 


Or, How to Grow Early Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables. With Plans and 
Estimates for Building Glasshouses, Pits and Frames. With Illustrations. 

By Samubl Wood. Crown Svo, cloth 3/6 

" A good book, containing a great deal of valuable teaching."— Canrfgw^rf' Magattint. 


Or, How to Grow Vegetables, Fruits, and Flowers. Bv S. Wood. Fourth 
£<ution, with considerable Additions, and ntunerous Illustrations. Crown 

Svo, cloth 3/6 

" A very good book, and one to be highly recommended as a practical guide. The practical 
directions are excellent."— ^M<M<rwm. 


Or, How to Make One Acre of Land produce £fii7io a year, by the Cultivation 
of Fruits and Vegetables ; also. How to Grow Flowers in Three Glass Houses, 
so as to realise ^176 per annum clear Profit. By Samuel Wood, Author of 
" Good Gardening, &c. Sixth Edition, Crown Svo, sewed . . •I/O 

"We are bound to recommend it as not only suited to the case of the amateur and gentle- 
man's gardener, but to the market f[Kym9x.",—Gard«ners' MagoMtne. 


And Amateur's Complete Guide. By S. Wood. Crown Svo, cloth . 3/6 
" Full of shrewd hints and useful instructions, based on a lifetime of experience."— sSratrman. 


A Practical Guide to the Cultivation and General Treatment of the Potato. 
By J. Pink. Crown Svo 2/0 


By C. W. Shaw, late Editor of Gardening Illustrated. Cloth . 3/6 

*' The most vahiable compentUum of kitchen and market-garden work published."— ^ar^^^r. 





Including Advowsons, Assurance Policies, Copyholds, Deferred Annuities, 
Freeholds, Ground Rents, Immediate Annuities, Leaseholds, Life Interests, 
Mortgages, Perpetuities, Renewals of Leases, Reversions, Sinking Funds, 
&c., &c. 26th Eklition, Revised and Extended by William Schooling, 
F.R.A.S., with Logarithms of Natural Numbers and Thoman's Logarithmic 
Interest and Annuity Tables. 360 pp.. Demy 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published, Net BIO 
" Those interested in the purchase and sale of estates, and in the adjustment of compensatk>ii 
cases, as well as in transactions in annuities, life insurances, &c., will find the present edition of 
eminent service." — En^neering. 

"This valuable 000k has been considerably enlarsfed and improved by the labours of 
Mr. SchooUng, and is now very complete indeed." — Economist. 

" Altogether this edition will prove of extreme value to many classes of professional men In 
saving them many long and tedious calculations.'*— /nzv^/^rj' Review. 



For the Valuation for Purchase, Sale, or Renewal of Leases, Annuities, and 
Reversions, and of Property generally ; with Prices for Inventories, &c. By 
John Wheeler, Valuer, &c. Sixth Edition. Re-written and greatly Extended 
by C. NoRRis, Surveyor, Valuer, &c. Royal 32mo, cloth . . . 6/0 

" A neat and concise book of reference, containing an admirable and clearly-arranged list of 

prices for inventories, and a very practical guide to determine the value of furniture, &c. "—^atidard. 

• " Contains a large quantity of varied and useful information as to the valuation for purchase, 

sale, or renewal of leases, annuities and reversions, and of property generally, with prices ios 

inventories, and a guide to determine the value of interior fittings and other effects."— ^«<tfd!cr. 


A Manual of Instruction and Counsel for the Young Auctioneer. By Robert 
Squibbs, Auctioneer. Second Edition, Revised and partly Re-written. Demy 

8vo, cloth 1 2/6 

" The standard text-book on the topics of which it txests."—'AtfutueuiH. 
" The work is one of general excellent character, and gives much information In a com- 
pendious and satisfactory form."— BtMder. 

" May be reconmiended a» giving a great deal of Information on the law relating to 
auctioneers, in a very readable form/' — Law yournal. 

" Auctioneers may be congratulated on having so pleasing a writer to minister to thdr special 
VM^s."— Solicitors' youmal, 


A Practical Handbook on the Valuation of Landed Estates ; including 
Example of a Detailed Report on Management and Realisation ; Forms of 
Valuations of Tenant Right ; Lists of Local Agricultural Customs ; Scales of 
Compensation under the Agricultural Holdings Act, and a Brief Treatise on 
Compensation under the Lands Clauses Acts, &c. By Tom Bright, Agricul- 
tural Valuer. Author of ''The Agricultural Surveyor and Estate Agent's 
Handbook." Fourth Edition, with Appendix containing a Digest of the 
Agricultural Holdings Acts, 1883 and 1900. Crown 8vo, cloth. 

[Just Published. Net 6/0 

" Full of tables and examples in connection with the valuation of tenant-right, estates, labour, 
contents and weights of timber, and farm produce of all kinds." — Agrricultural Gazette. 

" An eminently practical handbook, full of practical tables and data of undoubted interest and 
value to surveyors and auctioneers in preparing valuations of all kinds."— Farmer. 


A Practical Handbook on Estimating the Cost of Forming, Renovating, 
Improving, and Grubbing Planutions and Underwoods, their V^uation for 
Purposes of Transfer, Rental, Sale or Assessment. By Tom Bright. Crown 
Bvo, cloth 3/Q 

"To valuers, foresters and agents it will be a welcome aid."— A^'orT* British Agriculturist. 
" Well calctilated to assist the valuer in the discharge of his duties, and of undoubted Inteiest 
and use both to surveyon and auctioneers in preiMuing valuations of all kinds."— Jir«i/ HtruUU 



Of Practical Rules, Formula, Tables, and Data. A Comprehensive Manual 
for the Use of Svu^eyors, Agents, Landowners, and others interested in the 
Equipment, the Management, or the Valuation of Landed Estates. B^ 
Tom Bright, Agricultural Surveyor and Valuer, Author of " The Agri- 
cultural Valuer's Assistant," &c. With Illustrations. Fcap. 8vo, Leather. 

l/itsi Published. Net 7/6 
" An exceedingly useful book, the contents of which are admirably chosen. The classes for 
whom the work is intended will find it convenient to have this comprehensive handbook accessible 
for reference." — Live Stock youmal. 

" It is a singularly compact and well informed compendium of the facts and figures likelv to 
be required in estate work, and is certain to prove of much service to those to whom it is 
addressed. "—Scotsman. 


Being Tables on a very much Improved Plan^ for Calculating the Value of 
Estates. With Tables for reducing Scotch, Irish, and Provincial Customary 
Acres to. Statute Measure, &c. By R. Hudson, C.E. New Edition. 

Royal 32mo, leather, elastic band . 4/0 

" Of incalculable value to the country gentleman and professional man. —Farmers journal. 


Comprising Formulae, Tables, and Memoranda required in any Computation 
relating to the Permanent Improvement of Landed Property. By ToHN Ewart, 
Surveyor. Second Edition, Revised. Royal 3amo, oblong, leather . 4/0 
" A compendious and handy little vo\yxia»,"—Spectaior. 


Being the above Two Works bound together. Leather . . • . 7/6 


A Popular and Practical Guide to the Purchase, Mortgage, Tenancy, and 
Compulsory Sale of Houses and Land^ including Dilapidations and Fixtures : 
with Examples of all^ kinds of Valuations, Information on Building and on the 
right use^ of Decorative Art. By E. L. Tarbuck, Architect and Surveyor. 
Sixth Edition, xamo, cloth • fi/Q 

" The advice is thoroughly practical" — Law youmaL 
" For all who have dealings with house property, this is a _ 

" Carefully brought up to date, and much unproved by the addition of a division on Fine Art. 

" For all who have dealings with house property, this is an Indispensable guide."— Decoration. 

"Carefully brought up to date, and much unproved by t 

A well- written and thoughtful -work."— Land AgetUs Recoil 



A Handbook of Instruction and Counsel for the Young Journalist. By John 

B. Mackis, Fellow of the Institute of Journalists. Crown 8vo, cloth . 2/0 

" This invaluable guide to journalism is a work which all aspirants to a Journalistic career will 
read with advantage."— ytwrwa/irA 


Engaged in Promoting Private Acts of Parliament and Provisional Orders for 
the Authorisation of Railways, Tramways, Gas and Water Works, &c. 
By L. Livingstons Macassby, of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law, 
M. Inst. C.E. 8vo, cloth £1 5s. 


Compiled for the Use of Inventors, Patentees and others. By G. G. M. 
Hardingham, Assoc. Mem. Inst. C.E., &c. Demy 8vo, cloth . • 1/6 


A Historical Sketch and Brief Statement of the Present Position of the 
Question at Home and Abroad. By J. S. Jeans, Author of " England's 
Supremacy, &C." Crown 8vo, aoo pp., cloth .... 2/Q 



A Handy-Book of the Principles of Law and Equity. With a Concise 
Dictionary of Legal Terms. By A Barrister. Thirty-ninth Edition, 
carefiiily Revised, and including New Acts of Parliament of 1901. Com- 
I»-ising the Youthful Offenders Acty igoi ; the Larceny Act^ IQOI ; the 
Intoxicating Liquors Act^ igoi ; the Factory and Workshop Act^ 1901^ and 
other enactments of the year. Judicial Decisions during the year have also 
been duly noted. Crown 8vo, 800 pp., strongly bound m cioth. 

[Just Published. 6/8 

•»♦ This Stattdard Work of Reference forms a Complbtb Epitome op the 
Laws op England, comprising (amongst other matter) ; 

The Rights and wrongs op individuals— landlord and tbnant— Vendors 


and companies— masters, servants and workmen— contracts and agreements 
—borrowers, lenders and sureties— sale and purchase op goods— cheques, 
Bills and notes— bills op sale— bankruptcy— Railway and Shipping Law— 
LiPB, Fire, and Marine Insurance— accident and Fidelity Insurance— Criminal 
Law— Parliamentary Elections— County Councils— District councils— Parish 
Councils— Municipal corporations— Libel and Slander— public health and 
Nuisances— Copyright, Patents, Trade Marks— Husband and Wipe— Divorce- 
infancy— Custody OP Children— trustees and executors— Clergy. Church- 
WARDENS. &c.— Game Laws and sporting— Innkeepers— Horses and Dogs— Taxes 
and death DxrriES— Forms op agreements, wills. Codicils, Notices, && 

1^ The cty'ea 0/ this rvcrh is to enabU these who consuUU to help themselves to the 
taw ; and thereby to dispense, as far «u possible, loith professional assistance and advite. There 
are many wrongs and grievances which persons suomit to from, time to titne through not 
knewtitg haw or where to e^PPly for redress: »nd many persons have «u great a dread qf a 
lawyer's office as o/a lion's den. fVith this book at hand it is believed that many a SiX-AND- 
ElCHTPENCE may be saved; many a wrong redressed; many a right reclaimed; many a law 
suit avoided ; and many an evil elated. The work has established itsei/T as the standard legeU 
adviser e/all classes, and has alto made a r^uiation/or itself «u a us^jfUl book 0/ r^^renoefor 
lawyers residing at a distance from law libraries, who are glad to have at hand a work 
e m bo dy ing recent decisions and enactments. 

Opinions op thb Prbss. 

** It is a complete code of EngBsh Law written In plain language, wliich all can undeistand. 

. . . Should be in tiie hands of every business man, «nd all who wish to abolish lawyers bills. "— 
IVeehly Times. 

" A useful and concise epitome of the law, compiled with condderable care."— I^rw Magasine. 

" A complete digest of the most useful facts which constitute English ]xw."— Globe. 
"This excellent BSndbook. . . . Admirably done, admirably arranged, and admirably 
cJMap." — Leeds Mercury. 

" A concise, cheap, and complete epitome of the English law. So plainly written that he who 
runs may read, and he who reads may understand. " — Figaro. 

" A dictionary of legal facts well put together. The book is a very useftil aiM."—Specitttor. 



With the Statutes and a Digest of Cases. By H. C. Folkard, Barrister-at- 
Law. Cloth 3/6 


A Popular Handbook on the Law of Contracts for Works and Services. By 
David Gibbons. Fourth Edition, with Appendix of Statutes by T. F. Uttley, 
Solicitor. Fcap. 8vo, cloth ......... 3/6 


(1878- 1 891). For the Use of Manufacturers and Managers. By Emilb 
Garckb and J. M. Fells. (Reprinted from "Factory Accounts.") 
Crown 8vo, sewed 6d. 






" It b not too much to say that no books have ever proved more 
popular with or more useful to young engineers and others than the 
excellent treatises comprised in Weale's Series."— Engineer. 

Jl i^itt dlsszi^th list* 






. ID 

. 12 






Givil Eingineeriii|(. 

By Henry Law, M.Inst.C.E. Including a Treatise on Hydraulic 
Engineering by G. R. Burnbll, M.I.C.E. Seventh Edition, revised, 
with Large Additions by D. K. Clark, M.I.CE. . . . 6/S 

Pioneer ESngineering : 

A Treatise on the Engineering Operations connected with the Settlement of 
Waste Lands in New Countries. By Edward Dobson, M.Inst.CE. 
With numerous Plates. Second Edition ...... 4/6 

Iron Bridges of Moderate Span: 

Their Construction and Erection. By Haiiiilton W. Pendrbd. With 40 
Illustrations 2/0 

Iron and Steel Bridges and Yiaduots. 

A Practical Treatise upon their Construction for the use of Engineers, 
Draughtsmen, and Students. By Francis Campin, C.E. With numerous 
Illustrations 3/6 

Gonstruotional Iron and Steel Work, 

As applied to Public, Private, and Domestic Buildings. By Francis 
Camfin, C.E 3/6 

Tubular and other Iron Girder Bridges. 

Describing the Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges. By G. Drysdalb 
Dempsev, C.E. Fourth Edition 2/0 

Materials aiid Construction: 

A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on the Strains, Designing, and £rec» 
tion of Works of Construction. By Francis Campin, C.E. . . 3/0 

Sanitary THTork in the Smaller Towns and in Villages. 

By Charles Slagg, Assoc. M.Inst.C.E. Third Edition . . 3/0 

Roads and Streets (The Construction of). 

In Two Parts : I. The Art op Constructing Common Roads, by H. 
Law, CE., Revised by D. K. Clark, C.E..; II. Recent Practice: In- 
cluding Pavements of Wood, Asphalte, &c. JSy D. K. Clark, CE. 4/6 

Gas Works (The Construction of), 

And the Manufacture and Distribution of Coal Gas. By S. Hughes, CE. 
Re-writtenby William Richards, CE. Eighth Edition . . 6/6 

Water Works 

For the Supply of Cities and Towns. With a Description of the Prindpal 
Geological Formations of England as influencing Supplies of Water. By 
Samuel Hughes, F.G.S., CE. Enlarged Edition .... 4/0 

The Povrer of Water, 

As applied to drive Flour Mills, and to give motion to Turbines and other 
Hydrostatic Engines. By Joseph Glynn, F.R.S. New Edition . 2/0 

Wells and Well-Sinking. 

By John Geo. Swindell, A. R. I. B. A., and G. R. Burnkll, CE. Revised 
Edition. WithaNew Appendix on the Qualities of Water. Illustrated 2/0 

The Drainage of liands, Towns, and Buildings. 

By G. D. Dempsev, C.E. Revised, with laive Additions on Recent 
Practice, by D. K. Clark, M.I.CE. Third Edition . . . 4/6 

The Blasting and Quarrying of Stone, 

For Building and other Purposes. With Remarks on the Blowing op of 
Bridlges. By Gen. Sir J. Burgoynb, K.CB {/6 

Foundations and Concrete Works. 

With Practical Remarks on Footings, Plankins, Sand, Concrete. B^ton, 
Pile-driving:, Caissons, and Cofferdams. By E. Dobson, M.K.I.B.A. 
Eighth Edition 1 /© 

weale's scientific and technical series. 3 

n il  I I m il „ ^,„,.^^^,,„^.^,^m^, „ | — «»— i^i— ^ 


Including Acoustics and the Phenomena of Wind Currents, for the Use of 
Beginners. By Charles Tomlinson, F.R.S. Fourth Edition • t/6 

Land and Engineering Sunreying. 

For Students and Practical Use. ByT. Baker, C.E. Eighteenth Edition, 
Revised and Extended by F. E. Dixon, A.M. Inst. C.E., Professional Asso- 
ciate of the Institution of Surveyors. With numerous Illustrations and two 
Lithographic Plates XJtistpublufud 2/0 

HensuFation and Measuring. 

For Students and Practical Use. With the Mensuration and Levelling of 
Land for the purposes of Modem Engineering. By T. Baker, CE. New 
Edition by E. Nugent, C.E 1/6 

Mining Calculations, 

For the use of ^ Students Preparing for the Examinations for Colliery 
Managers' Certificates, comprising numerous Rules and Examples in 
Arithmetic, Algebra, and Mensuration. By T. A. O'Donahue, M.B., 
First-Class Certificated Colliery Manager. [Just ^ubiished, 3/6 


Rudiments of. By A. Ramsav, F.G.S. Fourth Edition, revised and 
enlarged. Woodcuts and Plates . 3/6 

Coal and Coal Mining, 

A Rudimentary Treatise on. By the late Sir Warington W. Smyth, 
F.R.S. Eighth Eklition, revised by T. Forster Brown . • . 3/6^ 

Metallurgy of Iron. 

Containing Methods of Assay, Analyses of Iron Ores, Processes of Manu- 
facture of Iron and Sfeee|, &c. By H. Bauerman. F.G.S. With numerou*. 
Illustrations. Sixth Exlition, revised and enlarged .... 6/0^ 

The Mineral Surveyor and Valuer's Complete Guide.. 

By W. Lintern. Fourth Edition, with an Appendix on Magnetic and* 
Angular Surveying 3/6* 

Slate and Slate Quarrying : 

Scientific, Practical, and Commercial. By D. C. Davies, F.G.S. With^ 
numerous Illustrations and Folding Plates. Fourth Edition . . 3/0' 

A First Book of Mining and Quarrying, 

With the Sciences connected therewith, for Primary Schools and Self In-- 
struction. By J. H. Collins, F.G.S. Second Edition . . . 1/6' 

Subterraneous Surveying, 

With and without the Magnetic Needle. By T. Fbnwick and T. Baker,. 
CE. Illustrated 2/6- 

Mining Tools. 

Manual of. By Willia^a Morgans, Lecturer on Practical Mining at the 
Bristol School of Mines 2/6^ 

Mining Tools, Atlas 

Of Engravings tojillustrate the above, containing 235 Illustrations of Mining; 
Tools, drawn to Scale. 4to •...••.. 4/6 

Physical Geology, 

Partly based on Major-General Portlock's ** Rudiments of Geology." 
By Ralph 1*atb, A.L..§.^&C. Woodcuts. • . . • . 2/0 

Historical Geology, 

Partly based on Major-General Portlock's " Rudiments." By Ralph 
Tate, A.L.S * &c. Woedcut^^ 2/6 

Geology, PhysJoal «x|d :H^torioat. 

Con.sisting of " Physical C^Hiogy," which sets forth the Leading Principles 
of the Science; and "Historical Geology," which treats of Uie Mineral 
and Oiganic Conditions oi^thS- Earth at each successive epoch. By Ralph 
TATE,RaSi -. . H' '*i . . ... 4/6 


The Workman's Manual of ESngineoFin^ Drawing. 

By John Maxton, Instructor in Engineering Drawing, Royal Naval 
College, Greenwich. Seventh Edition. 300 Plates and Diagrams . 3/6 

Fuels: Solid, Liiquid, and Gaseous. 

Their Analysis and Valuation. For the Use of Chemists and Engineers. 
By H. J. Phillips, F.CS., formerly Analytical and Consulting Chemist 
to the Great Eastern Railway. Third Edition 2/0 

Fuel, Its Combustion and ESconomy. 

Consisting of an Abridgment of *' A Treatise on the Combustion of Coal and 
the Prevention of Smoke." By C. W. Williams, A.l.C.E. With Exten- 
sive Additions by D. K. Clark, M. Inst. C.E. Fourth Edition . 3/6 

The Boilermaker's Assistant 

In Drawing^ Temjplating, and Calculating Boiler Work, &c. By J. Court- 
ney, Practical Boilermaker. Edited by D. K. Clark, C.£m . 2/0 

The Boiler-Haker*s Ready Reckoner, 

With Examples of Practical Geometry and Templating for the Use of 
Platers. Smiths, and Riveters. By Johm Courtney. Edited by D. K. 

Clark, M.I.C.E. Fourth Edition 4/0 

•,♦ Thf last two IVorks in One Volume^ half-bound, entitled ** The Boiler- 
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Bteam Boilers : 

Their Construction and ManagemenL By R. Armstrong, C.£. Illustrated 


Steam and Machinery Management. 

A Guide to the Arrangement and Economical Management of Machinery. 
By M. Powis Bale, M.Inst. M.E 2/6 

Steam and the Steam Bngine, 

Stationary and Portable. B^'ing an Extension of the Treatise on the Steam 
Engine of Mr. J. Sbwell. By D. K. Clark, C.E. Fourth Edition 3/6 

The Steam Engine, 

A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of, with Rules and Examples for 
Practical Men. By T. Baker, CE 1/6 

The Steam Bngine. 

By Dr. Lardner. Illustrated • . •1/6 

Itfooomotiire ESngines, 

ByG. D. Demp.vey, C.E. With large Additions treating of the Modem 
Locomotive, by D. K. Clark, M. InstC.E 3/0 

Looomotive En^ne-Driiring. 

A Practical Manual for * Engineers in charge of Locomotive Engines. By 
Michael Reynolds. Tenth Edition. 3^. td. limp ; cloth boards . 4/0 

Stationary Engine-DriTing. 

A Practical Manual for Engineers in charge of Stationary Engines. By 
Michael Reynolds. Sixth Edition. 3J. €d. limp ; cloth boards . 4/6 

The Smithy and Forge. 

Including the Farrier's Art and Coach Smithing. By W. J. £. Crane. 
Fourth Edition 2/6 

Modem UTorkshop Practice, 

As applied to Marine, Land, and Locomotive Engines, Floating Docks, 
Dredging Machines, Bridges, Ship-building, &c. By J. G. Winton. 
Fourth Edition, Illustrated . . . . 3/6 


Comprising Metallurgy, Mouldin|^, Casting, Forging, Tools, Workshop 
Machinery, Mechanical Manipuljitton, Manufacture of the 3team Engine, 
&c. By Francis Campin, C.E. Third Edition .... 2/6 

Details of Machinery. 

Comprising Instructions for the Execution of various Works in Iron in the 
Fitting-Shop, Foundry, and Boiler- Yard. By Francis CaM4>in, C.E. 3/0 

Blementary B«ii^ineeviiitf : 

A Manual for Young Marine Engineers and Apprentices. In the Form of 
Questions and Answers on Metals, Allojrsi Strength of Materials ftc 
by T. & Brewer. Fourth Edition t /6 

Power in Motion: 

Horse-power Motion, Toothed>Wheel Gearing, Long and Short Driviiu^ 
Bands, Angular Forces, &c. By Jambs Armour, CK Third Edition 2/0 

Iron and Heat, 

Exhibiting the Principles concerned in the Constmctton of Iron Beams, 
Pillars, and Girders. By J. Armour, CE. 2/6 

Praotioal Mechanism, 

And Machine Tools. By T. Bakbr, CE. With Remarks on Tools and 
Machinery, by J. Nasmytm, CE 2/6 

Mechanics : 

Being a concise Exposition of the General Principles of Mechanical Science, 
and their Applications. By Charles Tomlinson, F.R.S. . • 1/6 

Cranes (The Construction of), 

And other Machinery for Raising Heavy Bodies for the Erection of Build- 
ings, &c. By Joseph Glynn, r.R.S 1/6 

The Sailor*s Sea Book: 

A Rudimentary Treatise on Navigation. By Jambs Greenwood, B.A. 
With numerous Woodcuts and Coloured Plates. New and enlarged 
Edition. By W. H. Rossbr 2/6 

Practical Navigation. 

Consisting of The Sailor's Sba-Book, by Tames Greenwood and W. H. 
RossER ; together with Mathematical and Nautical Tables for the Working 
of the Problems, by Henry Law, C.E., and Prof. J. R. Young . 7/0 

Navigation and Nautical Astronomy, 

in Theory and Practice. By Prof. J. R. Young. New Edition. 2/6 

Mathematical Tables, 

For Trigonometrical, Astronomical, and Nautical Calculations ; to which is 
prefixed a Treatise on Logarithms. By H. Law, CE. Together with a 
Series of Tables for Navigation and Nautical Astronomy. By Professor J. 
R. Young. New Edition 4/0 

Masting, Mast-Making, and Rigging of Ships. 

Also Tables of Spars, Rigging, Blocks ; Chain, Wire, and liemp Ropes, 
&c, relative to every class (^vessels. By Robert Kipping, N.A. . 2/0 

Sails and Sail-Making. 

With Draughting, and the Centre of Effort of the Sails. By Robert 
Kipping, N.A 2/6 

Marine Engines and Steam Vessels. 

By R. Murray, C.E. Eighth Edition, thoroughly revised, with Addi- 
tions by the Author and by Gborgb Carlisle, C.E. . . . 4/6 

Naval Architecture: 

An Exposition of Elementary Principles. By Jambs Pbakb . . 3/6 

Ships for Ocean and River Service, 

Principles of. the Construction of. By Hakon A. Sommbrfbldt . 1/6 

Atlas of Engravings 

To Illustrate the above. Twelve large folding Plates. Royal 4to, cloth 7/6 

The Forms of Ships and Boats. 

By W. Bland. Ninth Edition, with numerous Illustrations and 
Models 1/6 

6 weale's scientific and technical series. 


Constmotional Iron and Steel Work, 

As applied to Public, Private, and Domestic Buildinsa; By Frakcis 
Campin, CE 3/6 

Building Bstates: 

A Treatise on the Development, Sale, Purchase, and Manasement of BnHd- 
ing Land. By F. Maitlanu. Third £diti<m 2/0 

The Science of Building : 

An Elementary Treatise on the Principles of Construction. By E. Wvnd- 
HAM Tarn, M.A. Lond. Fourth Edition 3/6 

The Art of Building : 

General Principles of Construction, Strength, and Use of Materials, Working 
Drawings, Specifications, &c By Edwaso Dobson, M.K.LB.A. . 2/0 

A Book on Building, 

Civil and Ecclesiastical. By Sir Edmund Beckbtt, Q.C. (Lord Grim- 
thorpe). Second Edition 4/6 

DweUing-Houees (The Breotion of). 

Illustrated by a Perspective View, Plan<, and Sections of a Pair of Villas, with 
Specification, Quantities, and Estimates. By S. H. Brooks, Architect 2/6 

Cottage BuUding. 

By C. Bruck Allrn. Eleventh Edition, with Chapter on Economic Cot- 
tages for Allotments, by E. E. Allen, C.E 2/0 

Acoustics in Relation to Architecture and Building : 

The Laws of Sound as applied to the Arrangement of Buildings. By Pro- 
fessor T. Rocrr Smith, F.R.LB.A. New Edition, Revised . .1/6 

The Rudiments of Practical Bricklaying. 

General Principles of Bricklaying ; Arch Drawing, Cutting, and Setting ; 
Pointing ; Paving, Tiling, &c By Adam Hammond. With 68 Woodcuts 

The Art of Practical Brick Cutting and Setting. 

By Adam Hammond. With 90 Engravings 1/6 

BricdKivork : 

A Practical Treatise, embodying the General and Higher Principles of 
Bricklaying, Cutting and Setting ; with the Application of Geometry to Roof 
Tiling, &c. By F.Walker 1/6 

Bricks and Tiles, 

Rudimentary Treatise on the Afanufacture of; containing an Outline of the 
Principles of Brickmaking. By £. Dobson, M.R.LB.A. Additions by 
CToMLiNSON, F.R.S. Illustrated 3/0 

The Practical Brick and Tile Book. 

Comprising: Brick and Tile Making, by E. Dobson, M.Inst.CE.; 
Practical Bricklaying, by A. Hammond ; Bkick-cutting and Setting, 
by A. Hammond. 550 pp. with 270 lUustratious, half-bound . . 6/0 

Carpentnr and Joinery — 

The Elementary Principles op Carpentry. Chiefl3rcomposed from the 
Standard Work of Thomas Trbdgold, C.E. With Additions, and Treatise 
on Joinery, by E. W. Tarn, M.A. Seventh Edition . . . 3/6 

Carpentry and Joinery— Atlas 

Of 3; Plates to accompany and Illustrate the foregoing bode With 
Descriptive Letteroress. 410 . . . . 6/0 

A Fraotioal Treatise on Handrailing; 

Showing New and Simple Methods. By Geo. Colli ngs. Second Edition, 
Revised, inclading a Trbatisb on Stairbuiloing. With Plates . 2/6 

Circular Work in Carpentry and Joinery. 

A Practical Treatise on Circular Work of Single and Double Curvature. 
By George Collikgs. Third Edition 2/6 

Roof Carpentry: 

Practical Lessons in the Framing of Wood Roofs. For the Use of Working 
Carpenters. By Geo. Collings ....... 2/0 

The Conetmotion of Roofs of Wood and Iron; 

Deduced chiefly from the Works of Robiwn, Tredjsj^old, and Humber. Bv 
£. Wyndham Tarn, M.A., Architect. Third Edition . .1/6 

The Joints Made and Used by Builders. 

By Wyvill J. Christy, Architect. With i6o Woodcuts . . 3/0 


And its Application : A Handbook for the Use of Students. By Gborgb 
H. Blacrovb. With 31 Illustrations 1/6 

The Timber Importer's, Timber Merchant's, and 
Builder's Standard Guide. 

By R. £. Grandy 2/0 


A Text-Book to the Practice of the Art or Craft of the Plumber. With 
Chapters upon House Drainage and Ventilation. By Wm. Paton Buchan. 
Eighth Edition, Re-written and EnlaKjed, with 500 Illustrations . 3/6 

Yentilation : 

A Text Book to the Practice of the Art of Ventilating Buildings. By W. P. 
Bu«han, R.P., Author of " Plumbing," &c. With X70 Illustrations 3/6 

The Practical Plasterer: 

A Compendium of Plain and Ornamental Plaster Work. By W. Kemp 2/0 

House Painting, Graining, Marbling, ft Sign Writing. 

With a Course of Elementarj^ Drawing, and a Collection of Useful Receipts. 
By Ellis A. Davidson. Eighth Edition. Coloured Plates . . o/O 

*«* TAa abave^ in cloth boards^ strongly bounds 6/0 

A Grammar of Colouring, 

Applied to Decorative Painting and the Arts. By George Field. New 
Edition, enlarged, by Ellis A. Davidson. With Coloured Plates . 3/0 

Blementary Decoration 

As applied to Dwelling Houses, &c. By James W. Facey. Illustrated 2/0 

Practical House Decoration. 

A Guide to the. Art of Ornamental Painting, the Arrangement of Colours in 
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•»* Tlie last two Works in One handsome Vol.^ half-hound, entitled " House 
Decoration, Elementary and Practical," /'''<^' 6/0* 

Portland Cement for Users. 

By Henry Faija, A.M.Inst.C.E. Third Edition, Corrected . . 2/0 

I^imes, Cements, Mortars, Concretes, Mastics, Plas- 
tering, ftc. 

By G. R. Burnell C.E. Fifteenth Edition 1/6 

8 weale's scientific and technical series. 

lEASonry and Stone-Cutting. 

The Principles of Masonic Projection and their application to Constnactioa 
By Edward DoBSON, M.R.I.B.A. 2/6 

UToh— , Piers, Buttresses, fto.; 

Experimental Essays on the Principles of Constractioo. By W. Blandl 

Quantities and Measurements, 

In Bricklayers', Masons', Plasterers', Plumbers', Painters', Paperhangen', 
Gilders', Smiths', Carpenters' and Jomers' Work. By A. C Bbatok 1 /6 

The Oomplete Measurer: 

Setting forth the Measurement of Boards, Glass, Umber and Stoce. By R« 
HoRTON. Sixth Edition 4/0 

%* TAe dbcve^ ttrangly bound in Uathir, fnc$ S/0» 

An Introduction to the Science of Optics. Designed for the Use of Students 
ct Architecture, Engineering, and other Applied Sciences. By E Wynd> 
HAM Tarn, M.A., Author of " The Science of Building," &c. . . 1/6 

EUnts to Tountf Architects. 

By Gborgb Wightwick, Architect Sixth Edition, revised and enlarged 
by G. HusKissoN Guillavms, Architect 3/6 

Architecture— Orders : 

The Orders and their iEsthetic Principles. By W. H. Lbbds. Illastnted. 

Architecture— Styles : 

The History and Description of the Styles of Architecture of Various 
Countries, from the Earliest to the Present Period. By T. Talbot Bvkv, 
F.ILLaA. Illustrated 2/0 

*«* Orders and Styles or Architecture, m Ont Vol,, 3/6* 

Architecture— Design : 

The Princiii>«»e of Design in Architecture, as deducible from Nature and 
exemplified m the Works of the Greek and Gothic Architects. By Edw. 

Lacy Garbbtt, Architect Illustrated 2/6 

*«* TJko tkrt* preceding Works in On* Aandsoms Vol, JkaJ/ioumd, entitled 
"Modern Architecture," >rKV 6/0« 

Perspective for Beginners. 

Adapted to Young Students and Amateurs in Architecture, Painting, && 
By Cborce Pyne 2/0 

Architectural Modelling in Paper. 

By T. A. Richardson. With Illustrations, engraved by O. Jewitt t /B 

Glass Staining, and the Art of Painting on Glass. 

From the German of Dr. Gessert and Emanuel Otto Fromberg. With 
an Appendix on The Art of Enamelling 2/6 

Yitruirius — The Architecture of. 

In Ten Books. Translated from the Latin by Joseph Gwilt, F.S.A., 
F.R.A.S. With 33 Plates 6/0 

N.B.—Tkis is the only Edition e/^ViTRUVius procnrable at a moderate price, 

Grecian Architecture, 

An Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty in. With an Historical View of the 
Rise and Progress of the Art in Greece. By the Earl or Aberdeem \ /Q 

*•* Th€ two preceding Works in One kandsome Vol,, heUfhound^ entitUd 
" Ancient Architecture," price 6/0* 

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Cements, Pastes, Glues, and Gums. 

A Guide to the Manufacture and Application of AggloUnants. With 900 
Recipes and Fonnalae. By H. C. Standagb ..... 2/0 

Clocks and Watches, and Bells, 

A Rudimentary Treatise on. By Sir Edmund Bbckbtt, Q.C (Lord 
Grimthorpe). Seventh Edition 4/6 


Practically Treated. By Albxandbr Watt. Tenth Edition, enlarged 
and revised includine the most Recent Processes .... 3/G 

The Goldsmith's Handbook. 

Cootaining full Instructions in the Art of Alloying, Melting, Reducing, 
Colouring, CoUeaing and Refining, Recovery of Waste, Solders, Enamels, 
&c., &c. By Gborgb E. Gbb. Fifth Edition 3/0 

The SilYersmith's Handbook, 

On the same plan as the Goldsmith's Handbook. By G. E. Gbb. 3/0 
*«* Tk^ last two IVorks, in One handsomi VoL^ half-bound, 7/0> 

The Hall-Markintf of Jewellery. 

Comprising an account of all the different Assay Towns of the United 
Kingdom ; with the Stamps and Laws relating to the Standards and Hall 
Marks at the various Assay Offices. By Gborob £. Gbb . . .3/0 

French Polishing and Enamelling. 

A Practical Work of Instruction, including numerous Recipes for making 
Polishes, Varnishes, Glaze-Lacquers, &c. By R. Bitmbad . .1/6 

Practical Organ Building. 

By W. E. Dickson, M.A. Second Edition, Revised, with Additions 2/S 

Coach-Building : 

A Practical Treatise. By Jambs W. Bubgbss. With 57 Illustrations 2/6 

The Gabinet-Maker's Guide 

To the Entire Construction of Cabinet-Work. By R. Bitmbad . 2/6 

The Brass Founder's Manual: 

Instructions for Modelling, Pattern Makine, &c. By W. Graham . 2/0 

The Sheet-Metal Worker's Guide. 

A Practical Handbook for Tinsmiths, Coppersmiths, Zincworkers, &c., with 
46 Diagrams. By W. J. £. Cranb. Third Edition, revised . .1/6 

Sewing Machinery: 

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ing, &c. By J. W. Urquhart, C£ 2/0 

Gas Fitting: ^ 

A Practical Handbook. By John Black* New Edition ^. . 2/6 

Gonstruction of Door Locks. 

From the Papers of A. C. Hobbs. Edited by C Tomlinson, F.R.S. 2/6 

The Model IiocomotiTe Engineer, Fireman, and 

By MicHABL Reynolds 3.'6 

The Art of Letter Painting made Basy. 

By J. G. Badbnoch. With la full-page Engravings of Examples . t /6 

The Art of Boot and Shoemaking. 

Including Measurement, Last-fitting, Cutting-out, Closing and Making. Bv 
John Brdpord Lend. With numerous Illustrations. Fourth Edition 2/0 

Mechanical Dentistry: 

A Practical Treatise on the Construction of the Various Kinds of Artificia) 
Dentures. By Charlbs Huntbr. Fourth Edition . . . 3/0 

Wood Bngraving: 

A Practical and Easy Introduction to the Art. By W. N. Browk . t /9 

lAundry Management. 

A Handbook for Use in Private and Public Laundries . . 2/0 


Draining and Bmbaaking: 

A Traciical Treatise. By Prof. John Scott. With 68 Illustrations 1 /6 

Irrigation and Water Supply: 

A Practical Treatise on Water Meadows, Sewage Irrigation, Warping, &c.; 
on the Construction of Weils, Ponds, Reservoirs, &c. By Prof. JfoHN 
Scott. With 34 Illustrations 1/6 

Farm Roads, Fenoes, and Gates: 

A Practical Treatise on the Roads, Tramways, and Waterways of the 
Farm ; the Principles of Enclosures ; and the different kinds of Fences, 
Oates, and StUes. By Prof. John Scott. With 75 Illustrations . \ /6 

Farm Buildings: 

A Practical Treatise on the Buildings necessary for various kinds of Farms, 
their Arrangement and Construction, with Plans and Estimates. By Prof. 
John Scott. With 105 Illustrations 2/0 

Bam Implements and Maohines: 

Treating of the AppKcation of Power and Machines used in the Threshing- 
barn, Stockyard, Dairy, &c. By Prof. J. Scott. With 123 IUustrati<M>s. 

Field Implements and Maohines: 

With Principles and Details of Construction and Points of Excellence, their 
Management, &c. By Prof. John Scott. With 138 Illustrations 2/0 

Agrioultural Surveying: 

A Treatise on Land Surveying, Levelling, and Setting-out ; with Directions 
for Valuing Estates. By ^rof. J. Scott. With 6a Illustrations . t /6 

Farm SSn^ineerintf. 

By Professor John Scott. Comprising the above Seven Volumes in One, 
1,150 pages, and over 600 Illustrations. Half-bound . •12/0 

Outlines of Farm Management. 

I'reating of the General Work of the Farm ; Stock ; Contract Work ; 
Labour, &c By R. Scott Burn 2/6 

Outlines of Landed Bstates Management. 

Treating of the Varieties of Lands, Methods of Farming, Setting-out of 
Farms, Roads, Fences, Gates, Drainage, &c. By R. Scott Burn . 2/6 

%* ^/</ a^cve T1V0 yds. in Ont, kandsomtly ha^-iound, price 6/0 

Soils, Manures, and Crops. 

(Vol. I. OuTLiMEs OP Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn . 2/0 

Farming and Farming ESconomy. 


Stook: Cattle, Sheep, and Horses. 

(Vol. HI. Outlines ok Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn 2/6 

Dairy, Pitfs, and Poultry. 

(Vol. Iv. Outlines of Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn 2/0 

Utilization of Sewage, Irrigation, and Beolamation 
of Waste Land. 

-» (Vol. V. Outlines op Modern Farming.) By R. Scott Burn . 2/6 

Outlines of Modem Farming. 

By R. Scott Burn. Consisting of the above Five Volumes in One, 
1,250 pp., profusely Illustrated, half-bound . • . . 1 2/0 


Book-keeping for FaFiners and Bstate Owners. 

A Practical Treatise, presenting, in Three Plans, a System adapted for all 
classes of Farms. By J. M. Woodman. Third Edition, revised . 2/8 

Ready Reckoner for the AdmeaeuremMit of I^and* 

By A. Arman. Fourth Edition, revised and extended by C. NoRRis 2/0 

Miller*8, Com Merchant's, and Farmer's Ready 

Second Edition, revised, with a Price List of Modern Flour Mill Machlneryi 
by W. S. HUTTON, C.E 2/0 

The Hay and Straw Measurer. 

New Tables for the Use of Auctioneers, Valuers, Farmers, Hay and Straw 
Dealers, &c. By John Steblb 2/0 

Meat Production. 

A Manual for Producers, Distributors, and Consumers of Butchers' Meat. 
By John Ewart 2/0 

Sheep : 

The History, Structure, Economy, aind Diseases of. By W. C. Spoonbk, 
^LR.V.S. Fifth Edition, with fine Engravings 3/8 

Market and Kitchen Gardening. 

By C. W. Shaw, late Editor of " Gardening Illustrated " . . . 3/0 

Kitchen Gardening Made Easy. 

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